Историко-культурологические идеи С.Л. Франка
At the very core of Frank's perception of culture here is the primary 1-You relation. On the one hand, it separates the culture from the world of distinct things in which there are the subject-object connections; on the other hand, it transfers the researcher's position inside the space of culture. An art is the most pure manifestation of culture, which turns to be the model of pure existence, not divided into different subjects and therefore perceived by intuition. The culture for Frank is not an object to be contemplated but the very type of relationship of man and reality.
The author refl ects upon the book The Sources of cultural-historical psychology: philosophical-humanitarian context by V. Zinchenko, B. Pruzhinin, T. Schedrina. Moscow, 2010.
The article deals with the clauses or preconditions of language and culture acquisition. Following G. G. Shpet, A. A. Uchtomsky, M. Heidegger, N. A. Bernshtein and V. V. Bibikhin, the author qualifies them as «pre-experiential origin». This «origin» is regarded as direct intelligible intuition, spiritual integral, non-differentiated unity: I understand, I think, I can. Spontaneous character of this origin does not mean its primitiveness. Non-mediated pre-experiential origin develops in its differentiation that comes to life in joint activity, in interflowing communication giving birth to multiple forms of culture-mediated behavior. Development of these forms hampers perception and understanding of the world in its immediacy but also enriches these acts. Interchange and interaction of the immediate and the mediated is regarded as a necessary condition of human development and productive activity. The author questions the idea of division psychological functions into natural and cultural (higher), assumed in cultural-historical psychology.
In the works of founders of philosophical anthropology M. Scheler, H. Plessner and A. Gehlen the problem of culture appears in a context of clarification of differences of the person from the animal. This difference receives the name cultural, or the open program which is opposed to the other one – natural, or instinctive. The essence of the open program consists in ability of the person to go beyond instincts as the ordered behavioural schemes: cultural standards in a counterbalance to instincts, dictate to the person other patterns of behavior which are defined by motives absolutely independent of a psychophysiological condition of an organism