Моральные эмоции в ряду механизмов социального сплочения
The article discusses emotions in the context of interdisciplinary studies of morality. Special attention is paid to the negative moral emotions and their social function — the cohesion of the group through the actualization of identity. On the basis of two case studies we considered the role of negative moral emotions in the formation of the new identities and the group cohesion. It is revealed that the source of emotion is the assessment of the situation as unfair. In the ﬁ rst case, in-group is seen as the subject of injustice, in the other — outgroups are the subject and the object of injustice. Outgroup-«aggressor» is endowed with the features of the «ancient enemy». An indignation becomes the key emotion and it forms the basis of the group cohesion. Reputation risk for the in-group generates «image shame», which, in turn, becomes a source of aggression towards any observer, as a potential witness of the «loss of face».
The paper reviews contemporary research of group helping behavior - help for some members of outgroup or outgroup as a whole. Various forms of selfish helping (help, contrary to stereotypes, defensive help) and factors of intensity of the helping behavior are analyzed. In conclusion, describes the limitations of existing studies
This monograf is devoted to the subject of justice. Principal attention is given in the work to the organization of judizial power, procedure, the judiciary, procedural guarantees, and rights of the individual. The evolution of justice is analused against the background of various historical civilizations and epochs, making it possibleto more fully examine the tasks and functions of courts in the modern world. The basic national and international models of justice are described with special reference to the Russian model of justice, its principles, its institutional and procedural fundamentals and its future development, including the development of judicial procedure. This publication is intended for lawyers, scholars, teachers, postgraduate students and students of higher education, as well as for all those interested in questions surrounding justice.
In the article the main sociological problem of social solidarity is discussed in terms of sociology of emotions. Emotions as integral part of human behavior operate on micro- and macrolevel of social structure and promote social consensus and make adjustments to normative behavior. On the basis of analysis of the body of works on sociology of emotions the author concludes that sociologists tend to study social solidarity through «moral emotions». Namely these emotions have strong effects on individual and social behavior and hold up moral order and social solidarity. In the author’s opinion moral emotions are the part of emotional regimes, which are developed in social order and support social solidarity.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.