This article deals with the theories of the civil education, carried out by two prominent early modern pedagogical scholars – Jan Amos Komenský and Giambattista Vico. The author states that, whereas according to Komenský the civil prudence consists in the so-called “emendation of cases” and is considered in terms of the Christian-Stoic ascetics, in Vico the civil paideia primarily concerns the prereflective virtue and relies on topics and rhetoric.
This article deals with Scuola antica architettata all'Egiziana e alla Greca (“Ancient school built in Egyptian and Greek styles”) by the great Giovanni Battista Piranesi. The publication of “Opere Varia II”, which contains this engraving by Piranesi, cannot be dated precisely, but it is known that it appeared after 1761, despite the fact that it bears the date of 1750. This engraving refl ects the idea of an idealised ancient school, which, due to Piranesi, formed in Europe in the second half of the 18th century. Piranesi thought of the school as an open sacred temple of science placed in the centre of an ideal city. The article also identifi es sources for the “Ancient School” of Piranesi, which are architectural and artistic traditions from Antiquity to Early Modern Time. The article reveals the social aspect of Piranesi’s work, since his “Ancient School” focuses on the ideal of access to education for wider strata of population. The influence of this engraving by Piranesi was traced in the project of Etienne-Louis Boullée in the creation of the Royal Library (1784), which was an original look at the educational space of the library and demonstrated a striking resemblance to the interior of the “Ancient School”. Echoes of Etienne-Louis Boullée’s project are visible in the implementation of Moscow underground station Biblioteka imeni Lenina (Lenin Library).
This article discusses current approaches to the study of morality as a predictor of individual behavior. Integration of personological and socio- psychological approaches opens new perspectives for considering the relationship between moral judgment and moral action. «Self» is considered as a «point of intersection». «Moral Self» is the center of attention in a number of personological as well as socio — psychological research directions. The total consideration of three factors — cognitive aspects of the morality (representations, values, judgments), the components of Self (moral self-esteem and the place of morality in the structure of Self) and situational infl uences (threat / support of the moral Self) — allows to predict individual behavior.
The article presents the results of analysis of moral aspects of the representation of the socially vulnerable groups in school textbooks. We consider the social classiﬁ cation as a factor that forms the social structure. The classiﬁ cation system is reﬂ ected in public discourse around issues of social policy, as having a moral dimension. It ﬁ xes codes of desirable and undesirable behavior, institutionalizes the behavioral practices and patterns of perception. The textbook becomes a tool for translation of existing practices to new generations. The empirical base of the study consisted of the textbooks on the subjects “World Around” and “Social Science”. The set of textbooks for the elementary schools includes for the analysis 4 fragments, for grades 5-11 — 72 fragments. The consideration of the examples of vulnerable groups in school textbooks has allowed a) to trace changes in representation of themes in textbooks aimed at diﬀ erent age groups, b) to identify the degree of similarity in the representation of diﬀ erent groups, combined in the category of «social insecurity». A normalizing discourse is dominating in relation to the poor/unemployed. People with disabilities, the elderly and single-parent families are represented in the discriminatory discourse, in which the individual represented as an object of care, or in the discourse of avoidance, aimed at the symbolic removing of the problem of reality.
The article discusses emotions in the context of interdisciplinary studies of morality. Special attention is paid to the negative moral emotions and their social function — the cohesion of the group through the actualization of identity. On the basis of two case studies we considered the role of negative moral emotions in the formation of the new identities and the group cohesion. It is revealed that the source of emotion is the assessment of the situation as unfair. In the ﬁ rst case, in-group is seen as the subject of injustice, in the other — outgroups are the subject and the object of injustice. Outgroup-«aggressor» is endowed with the features of the «ancient enemy». An indignation becomes the key emotion and it forms the basis of the group cohesion. Reputation risk for the in-group generates «image shame», which, in turn, becomes a source of aggression towards any observer, as a potential witness of the «loss of face».
The presented paper demonstrates the results of a survey conducted at the Institute of Distance Learning (IDL), Saint Tikhon’s Orthodox University. The survey aimed at investigating the attitude of scientists and practitioners to the issue of communication when teaching and learning theology through distance education. Familiarization with the teaching experience at DEI was organized by means of interviewing teaching staff of the department of new technologies in education in the humanities. Semi-structured interview was employed as a method to collect information for research purposes. Having studied the respondents’ answers to the questions on students and teachers collaboration quality assurance the collective of authors came to the conclusion that agreement of opinion, like-mindedness and trust among the participants of distance educational process are possible and even necessary to make it well-worked. The research fi ndings illustrate that the instruments of distance educational system allow achieving deep interpersonal interaction between learners and teachers and high quality of education on the condition that the participants of educational process are minded to use these instruments and skilled for that. Comparing foreign approach to communication process organization when teaching theology online with the experience of the research participants, authors drew the following conclusions: 1. IDL teachers apply a blended teaching and learning model referring to the point that a teacher may act as an expert translating knowledge, on one hand, and organize, moderate interaction among the learners, on the other hand. 2. Study participants, like their foreign colleagues, face the lack of methodical competence when organizing teaching and learning online. 3. Surveyed teachers utilize in an inadequate degree the opportunities provided by the distance educational system to organize interpersonal interaction.
Soviet school rules are treated in this article as a part of the pre-revolutionary school tradition and simultaneously as a representation of the image of Soviet schoolchild. The article consists of two parts. First part is a short historical outline of the rules of conduct in Soviet school policy and practice. Mentions of school rules in official documents and texts of school rules from 1930s to 1980s are analyzed. The story of rules in Soviet school can be told as a sequence of phases: starting from the period of ignoring rules (1917–1922), followed by gradual legitimizing them in the state and party resolutions (1927–1935), then the period of waiting for the rules approved by the state (1935–1943), a deсade of concentration on «Rules for pupils» (1943–1954), and then a gradual transferral of disciplinary functions to the genre of «unifi ed requirements for pupils» (1954–1972). «Rules for pupils» published in 1943, in contrast to the similar rules published in 1874, have a distinct aim of constructing ideal image of the Soviet school and Soviet schoolchild. The weight of the symbolic function of the Rules predetermined the loss of disciplinary regulation function in the later editions.
Soviet school rules are treated in this article as a part of the pre-revolutionary school tradition and simultaneously as a representation of the image of Soviet schoolchild. In this second part of the article the content of a corpus of 21 rules printed in the USSR (1937—1941) on behalf of particular schools is discussed. Rules of conduct cannot be used as a direct evidence for the disciplinary practice. But within corpus of similar rules variability in content and wording allows to observe patterns of choice made by rule compilers which let us reconstruct their logic of disciplinary thinking. Choice made by rule compilers on a several distinct levels is analyzed. At the level of choice of domain for rule application (a set of everyday situations where school rules apply) less expansion onto the child's out-of-school activities was found than may be expected of Soviet school. Choice at the level of details emphasized in the rules — interpreted as a more or less attention paid to the form of social conduct — was found to be an instrument providing Soviet school disciplinary practice with some ﬂexibility. Finally, analysis of choice at the level of rule wording reveals repercussions of everyday conﬂicts preserved in the form of prohibitions and threats.
This article scrutinizes personality variable of successful coping with stress termed hardiness (inventors of the term are Susan Cobeisa and Salvatore Maddi, the author of the Russian equivalent zhiznestoikost' is D.A. Leontiev). Thе work offers results of the comparative examination of hardiness in students of an Orthodox university and of secular universities.
This article presents the results of a comparative analysis of school textbooks of the Soviet and post-Soviet periods, aimed at the study of moral values' cultural «standard» and its transformation over the past decades. The study revealed the presence of both quantitative and qualitative changes of moral standards, assessments and judgments, transmitted to children.
The article discusses the issues of intergenerational cultural transmission on the example of the primers, published for Russian children in Latvia in 1920–1930-ies. The conceptual framework of the study made up of classical and contemporary theories of social cohesion and intergenerational cultural transmission. In the textbooks, published in the liberal period of the 1920-ies, the child is motivating to the self-development of values and behavioral practices, with recommended by adult community funds of knowledge and education. So the community orients child for inclusion in the network of weak ties, weakening the internal cohesion, but preparing the child for integration into the dominant culture. The primer, published a decade later, includes signs of «closure» of the group: «the immutability» of transmitted values, the illusion of stability, homogenizing the community in both horizontal and vertical measurements provides intra-group cohesion, protecting the group from the cultural diff usion and assimilation. Comparison of the identifi ed strategies with the results of the content analysis of textbooks published in diff erent cultural and political contexts, allows us to estimate the described model as a universal strategy of adaptation of minorities to the changing attitudes and politics of the majority.