This article deals with the theories of the civil education, carried out by two prominent early modern pedagogical scholars – Jan Amos Komenský and Giambattista Vico. The author states that, whereas according to Komenský the civil prudence consists in the so-called “emendation of cases” and is considered in terms of the Christian-Stoic ascetics, in Vico the civil paideia primarily concerns the prereflective virtue and relies on topics and rhetoric.
This article discusses current approaches to the study of morality as a predictor of individual behavior. Integration of personological and socio- psychological approaches opens new perspectives for considering the relationship between moral judgment and moral action. «Self» is considered as a «point of intersection». «Moral Self» is the center of attention in a number of personological as well as socio — psychological research directions. The total consideration of three factors — cognitive aspects of the morality (representations, values, judgments), the components of Self (moral self-esteem and the place of morality in the structure of Self) and situational infl uences (threat / support of the moral Self) — allows to predict individual behavior.
The article presents the results of analysis of moral aspects of the representation of the socially vulnerable groups in school textbooks. We consider the social classiﬁ cation as a factor that forms the social structure. The classiﬁ cation system is reﬂ ected in public discourse around issues of social policy, as having a moral dimension. It ﬁ xes codes of desirable and undesirable behavior, institutionalizes the behavioral practices and patterns of perception. The textbook becomes a tool for translation of existing practices to new generations. The empirical base of the study consisted of the textbooks on the subjects “World Around” and “Social Science”. The set of textbooks for the elementary schools includes for the analysis 4 fragments, for grades 5-11 — 72 fragments. The consideration of the examples of vulnerable groups in school textbooks has allowed a) to trace changes in representation of themes in textbooks aimed at diﬀ erent age groups, b) to identify the degree of similarity in the representation of diﬀ erent groups, combined in the category of «social insecurity». A normalizing discourse is dominating in relation to the poor/unemployed. People with disabilities, the elderly and single-parent families are represented in the discriminatory discourse, in which the individual represented as an object of care, or in the discourse of avoidance, aimed at the symbolic removing of the problem of reality.
The article discusses emotions in the context of interdisciplinary studies of morality. Special attention is paid to the negative moral emotions and their social function — the cohesion of the group through the actualization of identity. On the basis of two case studies we considered the role of negative moral emotions in the formation of the new identities and the group cohesion. It is revealed that the source of emotion is the assessment of the situation as unfair. In the ﬁ rst case, in-group is seen as the subject of injustice, in the other — outgroups are the subject and the object of injustice. Outgroup-«aggressor» is endowed with the features of the «ancient enemy». An indignation becomes the key emotion and it forms the basis of the group cohesion. Reputation risk for the in-group generates «image shame», which, in turn, becomes a source of aggression towards any observer, as a potential witness of the «loss of face».
Soviet school rules are treated in this article as a part of the pre-revolutionary school tradition and simultaneously as a representation of the image of Soviet schoolchild. The article consists of two parts. First part is a short historical outline of the rules of conduct in Soviet school policy and practice. Mentions of school rules in official documents and texts of school rules from 1930s to 1980s are analyzed. The story of rules in Soviet school can be told as a sequence of phases: starting from the period of ignoring rules (1917–1922), followed by gradual legitimizing them in the state and party resolutions (1927–1935), then the period of waiting for the rules approved by the state (1935–1943), a deсade of concentration on «Rules for pupils» (1943–1954), and then a gradual transferral of disciplinary functions to the genre of «unifi ed requirements for pupils» (1954–1972). «Rules for pupils» published in 1943, in contrast to the similar rules published in 1874, have a distinct aim of constructing ideal image of the Soviet school and Soviet schoolchild. The weight of the symbolic function of the Rules predetermined the loss of disciplinary regulation function in the later editions.
Soviet school rules are treated in this article as a part of the pre-revolutionary school tradition and simultaneously as a representation of the image of Soviet schoolchild. In this second part of the article the content of a corpus of 21 rules printed in the USSR (1937—1941) on behalf of particular schools is discussed. Rules of conduct cannot be used as a direct evidence for the disciplinary practice. But within corpus of similar rules variability in content and wording allows to observe patterns of choice made by rule compilers which let us reconstruct their logic of disciplinary thinking. Choice made by rule compilers on a several distinct levels is analyzed. At the level of choice of domain for rule application (a set of everyday situations where school rules apply) less expansion onto the child's out-of-school activities was found than may be expected of Soviet school. Choice at the level of details emphasized in the rules — interpreted as a more or less attention paid to the form of social conduct — was found to be an instrument providing Soviet school disciplinary practice with some ﬂexibility. Finally, analysis of choice at the level of rule wording reveals repercussions of everyday conﬂicts preserved in the form of prohibitions and threats.
This article scrutinizes personality variable of successful coping with stress termed hardiness (inventors of the term are Susan Cobeisa and Salvatore Maddi, the author of the Russian equivalent zhiznestoikost' is D.A. Leontiev). Thе work offers results of the comparative examination of hardiness in students of an Orthodox university and of secular universities.
This article presents the results of a comparative analysis of school textbooks of the Soviet and post-Soviet periods, aimed at the study of moral values' cultural «standard» and its transformation over the past decades. The study revealed the presence of both quantitative and qualitative changes of moral standards, assessments and judgments, transmitted to children.
The article discusses the issues of intergenerational cultural transmission on the example of the primers, published for Russian children in Latvia in 1920–1930-ies. The conceptual framework of the study made up of classical and contemporary theories of social cohesion and intergenerational cultural transmission. In the textbooks, published in the liberal period of the 1920-ies, the child is motivating to the self-development of values and behavioral practices, with recommended by adult community funds of knowledge and education. So the community orients child for inclusion in the network of weak ties, weakening the internal cohesion, but preparing the child for integration into the dominant culture. The primer, published a decade later, includes signs of «closure» of the group: «the immutability» of transmitted values, the illusion of stability, homogenizing the community in both horizontal and vertical measurements provides intra-group cohesion, protecting the group from the cultural diff usion and assimilation. Comparison of the identifi ed strategies with the results of the content analysis of textbooks published in diff erent cultural and political contexts, allows us to estimate the described model as a universal strategy of adaptation of minorities to the changing attitudes and politics of the majority.