Exploring the Russian Online Gift-Exchange Communities: the Results of Nethnographic Approach
This paper reports on 2 weeks nethnographic (online) observation of 4 online gift-exchange communities – virtual platforms, where participants conduct barter exchange of different daily objects such as books, children's products, furniture, home ware and others. These communities as case of informal economy initially do not have formal attributed rules. It is essential to find out 1) which rules and mechanisms exist in this type of economy; 2) what motivates people who are not acquainted with another to exchange gifts and 3) understand the way this communities exists.
The conclusion is drawn that social capital is the basic engine of investigated communities. The social capital accumulated by users increases the community commitment and cohesion by interpreting gifts as a set of resources to distribute fairly. The giving, the receiving and the exchanging are forms of communication that cause further communication and interworking outside of gift-giving situations. These gift-exchange communities are mainly based on the communication and consumption solidarity among individuals.
Actes du Congrès "Pluralisme et Reconnaissance" 22-24 juin 2006, Unesco, Paris. The present volume presents fully original articles, prepared for publication basing upon the texts of keynote reports presented at plenary sessions of the 9th International Congress in Philosophy and Cultural Studies, which was conducted by the St. Petersburg Branch of the Russian Institute for Cultural Studies and the UNESCO Chair for Comparative Studies of Spiritual Traditions, their Specific Cultures and Inter-religious Dialogue, functioning on the basis of the aforementioned Instiute.
The problem of negative consequences of the impact of marketing communications technologies would be in many respects solved, if the advertising community, the corporate tone was set up not just by the intellectuals, but by intelligent intellectuals, endowed with civil, and in broader terms, social and cultural responsibility. The formation of these specialists will no doubt contribute to an innovative course on "Integrated communications culturology ", which was piloted in 2013 in the HSE for the specialty "Advertising and Public Relations".
While the presence of monsters in popular culture is ever-increasing, their use as an explicit or implicit category to frame, stigmatise, and demonise the other is seemingly on the rise. At the same time, academic interest for monsters is ever-growing. Usually, monstrosity is understood as a category that emerges to signal a transgression to a given order; this approach has led to the demystification of the insidious characterisations of the (racial, sexual, physical) other as monstrous. While this effort has been necessary, its collateral effects have reduced the monstrous to a mere (socio-cultural) construction of the other: a dialectical framing that de facto deprives monstrosity from any reality. 'Monstrous Ontologies: Politics, Ethics, Materiality' proffers the necessity of challenging these monstrous otherings and their perverse socio-political effects, whilst also asserting that the monstrous is not simply an epistemological construct, but that it has an ontological reality.
The article examines Russian Harry Potter fan fiction as an anthropological source. The analysis focuses on fan fiction as a cultural practice, Russian online communities devoted to the continuation of Harry Potter stories and their common values, reading strategies and practices of writing. Given that Russian Harry Potter fan fiction writers and readers are mostly women, the author pays attention to gender norms as they are represented in fan fiction texts and reading practices. The article explores the central role that individual choice plays in fan fiction axiology, the representations of sex and corresponding problems of the language, the images of family which are produced and discussed in the community and the possibilities that slash as a fictional frame provides for the manifestation of the community’s essential values.
In this paper we explore main patterns of communication and cooperation in online groups created by residents of apartment buildings in St.Petersburg in social networking site “VK”. Using word-frequency analysis and Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) we discovered main discussion topics in online groups. We have also found that communication of neighbors in these groups is predominantly connected with material needs and directed to solve common problems, such as related to building improvement, management company and in-fill constructions near their house. Based on online observations of city activists, we suggest that dynamic nature of SNS allows online community which is dedicated to particular problem to avoid it’s breakdown after the resolution of the original issue.
An approach is suggested to formal evaluation of an online community on the base of lexical analysis of the news feed.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.