Protest public as a source of civic initiatives: on the example of mass protests in Russia 2011-2012
The subject of this research is the phenomenon of protest public in the context of its effect the establishment of public civic initiatives in Russia. In the modern society, one of the causes for public gathering is protest. It is the correlation between public gathering and protest activity, with emergence of public civic initiatives within it that becomes the object of author’s research. On the example of mass protests in Russia during 2011 and 2012, the author makes an attempt to characterize Russia’s protest public and determine the level of its effect upon the formation of new or support of the old civic initiatives. The methodological base for this work consisted of neo-institutional approach, and systemic analysis of the theoretical sources. Empirical foundation for this research is built on the data from social polling and materials of applied research on the protests of 2011-2012. Emergence of the public allowed realizing the attempt for basic request of solution to pressing issues. Despite the certain level of the diversity in its participants and inconsistency of this public, we can still underline the important result of its actions – civic initiatives that have formed within the protest public, which allowed to partially get around the closed nature of Russia’s political system. The author comes to a conclusion that in the conditions of lack of channels for influencing policy, realization of alternate initiatives that are formulated based on the realistic request of the citizens, rather than the will of the branches of government, remains one of a few mechanisms of public politics within the country.
According to the author, the quality of political parties and public administration are highly dependent on the ability of the citizens to self-organization, their concernment in public aff airs and also the extent government bodies are interested in cooperation with social structures.
Mass political protests in recent years, since the events of the "Arab Spring" 2010-2011 years, when citizens' political actions covered the Middle East and North Africa, and ending with the latest developments in Ukraine are an important factor of political changes. At the same time, once it has arisen, protests continue and preserve its influence on political developments in the US and Europe, Russia, Ukraine, Brazil, Turkey, Egypt, Thailand and many other countries from all continents of the world. This allows some researchers speak of the emergence of a new phenomenon - the phenomenon of protest groups of individuals or communities protest (protest publics). The last are not only factors, but also the actors of political changes in modern polities that requires clarification of existing methodological approaches and research tools of political change, as well as the roles of the different driving forces (actors and factors) in the process.
The article presents an analysis of the development of metropolitan areas in Mexico and in the State of Hidalgo.
The author explores the reasons behind the crisis of single industry towns, possibilities and challenges of public private partnership in such towns, presenting foreign experience of transformation of old industrial territories and giving recommendations aimed at increasing efficiency of public policy concerning single industry towns.
Russian federal agencies have created a variety of consultative bodies during the last decade, but their role in the agency's decision-making process is yet to be evaluated. Relevant experience of other countries proposes two major political factors of consultative bodies' influence. The political culture orientation towards compromise and positive perception of interest groups' participation in the decision-making process seem to contribute to that influence.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.