Особенности подготовки данных о событиях жизненного пути к анализу продвинутыми статистическими методами
Russia has been characterized by an early and universal marriage for a long time. After the Soviet Union collapse, the average ages for marriage have been rising, marital unions have becoming rarer while cohabitations have becoming common because of changes in norms and values that citizens of many other countries witnessed several decades before. Many scholars have observed this trend and tried to explain its reasons through the perspective of the Second Demographic Transition and Globalization theories. Current research is another attempt to understand these changes. The aim of this research was to define the nature of cohabitations in Russia, and find out the factors of entrance to non-marital unions. For these purposes, we used Event History Analysis and Sequence Analysis. The key requirement in using these methods is applying longitudinal or retrospective collections of data that have become the gold standard of current quantitative social science. Accordingly, the three-wave panel data of the Russian part of “Generations and Gender Survey” and the retrospective data of “Person, Family, Society” were chosen for this study. The opposite trends of matrimonial behavior were revealed: the younger Russian people are, the higher their probabilities to start the first cohabitation and the lower their risks to have the first marriage. Cohabitation is not a complete alternative to marriage in our country yet, but the proportion of Russians, for whom cohabitation does not grow into a marriage, rises, and young people start to consider a non-marital union appropriate for childbearing. It is a sign that cohabitation is close to become an independent social institution for young non-religious people who get secondary vocational education in big cities.
The analysis of existential, social and instrumental approaches to understanding of construction of trajectory of life course by adolescents is presented; their key theses are compared; possibilities and restrictions from the point of view of understanding of meaning and developmental tasks in adolescence are studied. It has been shown that different aspects of life construction are emphasized in different approaches thus enabling to concentrate on everyday, notional aspects of life (existential approach); social representations about succession of stages, image of success, system of attitudes to adolescent’s construction of life (social approach); as well as on environmental and interpersonal resources for concrete tasks’ solution and tactics of their implementation (instrumental approach). Conclusions about strong and weak aspects of the examined approaches make it possible to specify programs for psychological and pedagogical support of adolescents in planning and realization of their life choices. Recommendations have been made; prospects of studies in the given field of psychological researches have been shown.
In the paper, we used only one instrument from the palette of Sequence Analysis methods, the chronogram. But it was enough to show a variety of interesting differences in transition to adulthood among generations and genders. We revealed that new generations have one “new” event – cohabitation. Previous generations had it, but not so commonly as youngsters do now. Previous generations tended to start all the biographies (socioeconomic and demographic) earlier than new ones. Women are more “experienced” than men in the demographic sphere: at the age of 35 they more often have a child but already cease to have a partner or spouse. Men at the age of 35 more often have children and a partner or spouse.
Elusive Adulthoods examines why, within the past decade, complaints about an inability to achieve adulthood have been heard around the world. By exploring the changing meaning of adulthood in Botswana, China, Sudan, Papua New Guinea, Russia, Sri Lanka, Uganda, and the United States, contributors to this volume pose the problem of “What is adulthood?” and examine how the field of anthropology has come to overlook this meaningful stage in its studies. Through these case studies we discover different means of recognizing the achievement of adulthood, such as through negotiated relationships with others, including grown children, and as a form of upward class mobility. We also encounter the difficulties that come from a sense of having missed full adulthood, instead jumping directly into old age in the course of rapid social change, or a reluctance to embrace the stability of adulthood and necessary subordination to job and family. In all cases, the contributors demonstrate how changing political and economic factors form the background for generational experience and understanding of adulthood, which is a major focus of concern for people around the globe as they negotiate changing ways of living.