Политика, масса и священное (дюркгеймовские эффекты политизации)
The monograph is devoted to the phenomenon of politicization of constitutional institutes, which has emerged in recent years in the United States and the EU. The authors also analyze the peculiarities of electoral law and the electoral system in the United States, show the specifics of the election campaigns of individual parties and their leaders. The problem of revolutions as a form of national government, opposed in electoral procedures in the modern world is considered. Particular attention is paid to the process of politicization of the judiciary.
The article analyses theoretical resources of post-Durkheimian tradition in the sociology of emotions. The author proposes to use concept "shared affect" as theoretical frame. Being used on the context of key for sociology of emotions distinctions, such as "feeling/expression," "consciousness/unconsciousness emotion," "involvement/distancing of emotions," this concept lets to highlight relation of specific problems of sociology of emotions and ones of theoretical sociology.
Emotion, sociology of emotions, Durkheim, collective emotions, shared affect, intensity of emotions, Collins, background emotions, Scheff, distancing of emotions, emotion work
Philip Smith is one of the main followers of the strong program in cultural sociology. Along with Jeffrey C. Alexander, he is a co-author of a number of works which are constitutive for the tradition itself. Several of those are the strong program in cultural sociology manifesto; some texts which affirm late-Durkheimian program to be productive theoretical resource as well as history of the sociology fact; review of the second English translation of the Elementary Forms by Emile Durkheim. The work is representing a theory-oriented research of French revolution punishment technologies. It involves an analysis of expert and mass discourse concerning the guillotine as a regime's crucial symbolic representation. Cultural sociological reasoning is opposed to Foucault-inspired theoretical tradition which is dominant in criminology and the sociology of punishment.
Meaningful life is emotionally marked off. That’s the general point that Johansen (IPBS: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science 44, 2010) makes which is of great importance. Fictional abstractions use to make the point even more salient. As an example I’ve examined Borges’ famous fiction story. Along with the examples of Johansen it provides an informative case of exploring symbolic mechanisms which bind meaning with emotions. This particular mode of analysis draws forth poetry and literature in general to be treated as a “meaningful life laboratory”. Ways of explanation of emotional effect the art exercises on people, which had been disclosed within this laboratory, however, constitute a significant distinction in terms that I have designated as “referential” and “substantive”. The former appeals to something that has already been charged with emotional power, whereas the latter comes to effect by means of special symbolic mechanisms creating the emotional experience within the situation. Johansen, who tends to explain emotions exerted by the art without leaving the semiotic perspective, is drawn towards the “referential” type of explanation. Based upon discussions in theory of metaphor and Robert Witkin’s sociological theory of arts it is demonstrated an insufficient of “referential” explanation. To overcome a monopoly of “referential” explanation of emotional engagement, in particular, in literature, means to break away from the way of reasoning, stating endless references to “something else”, presupposing the existence of something already significant and therefore sharing its effects.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.