Региональные различия внутренней возвратной трудовой миграции
Background. Nowadays a large part of Russian provincials are forced to leave home on regular basis to earn a living for their families by working in other regions. Despite the scale of this phenomenon, it is ignored both by the politicians and by the scientific community. We believe it is important to provide a general description of such labor migrants and outline their specific regional features. The goal of the study is to describe the regional differences of the contemporary regular forced internal labor migration (hereinafter – labor migration) and to identify the reasons underlying the diversity in the social and economic characteristics of such migrating workers (hereinafter – labor migrants).
Materials and methods. The Kostroma (traditional northern center of nonagricultural seasonal labor migration) and Saratov (southern region) regions were selected for comparison. They strongly differ in what concerns the types of labor migration and labor behavior characteristics. The results are obtained by observing the labor migrants at places where they permanently reside, and on the basis of 93 detailed interviews.
Results. The author evaluated the scale of labor migration in both regions; studied the labor activity specific for the labor migrants of the Kostroma and Saratov region; considered the reasons for regional differences in social and economic and motivational characteristics; identified two social types of labor migrants.
Conclusions. The description of labor migration and migrants’ behavior allows identifying the existence of social types of the northern and the southern labor migrants. They differ by a variety of features, including behavior, motivation, cultural and economic aspects.
The migratory situation in Russia in the 1990-2000th years is considered. Separate types of migration are analysed: repatriation, labor migration, internal migration
Demographic growth is an important factor of migration processes. Nowadays, its influence is best felt in sub-Saharan Africa, where the tempo of demographic growth is the highest in the world. The chapter discusses the impact demographic growth makes specifically on labor migration from Africa to economically developed nations.
The first volume of the series “Demography. Sociology. Economics” is a collaboration of Russian scientists from the Center for Social Demography and Economic Sociology Institute of Social and Political Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow, Russian Federation) and Turkish scientists from the Center for Migration Studies, University of Koch (Mr. Istanbul, Republic of Turkey). It presents research papers of young Russian and foreign scientists who took part in the international scientific and practical Summer School "International migration in the post-Soviet space: Challenges, models and effects", which was held at Koç University in Istanbul in June-July 2014. The book reflects the results of theoretical and empirical research of young scientists from eight countries: Russia, Turkey, Ukraine, Poland, Germany, Great Britain, the Netherlands, and Brazil. The book recommendation for students, postgraduate students, teachers, scientists and experts in demographic and migration sphere.
Moscow has always been a magnet attracting migrants from other regions of Russia. Recently, however, it plays an increasingly important role as the largest of Russia center of attraction for migrant flows from abroad. External migrants integrate in Moscow , transforming in the process the social, cultural, and physical dimensions of urban space. That is why the goal of this study is to explore this mutual influence between the city and the migrants from abroad living in it. How is life of migrants in Moscow organized? Are there any localities or spaces (coffee shops, restaurants, shops, etc) consistently visited by migrants? Does the 'migrant Moscow" exist", and if yes, how does it look like?
The authors examine the processes of internal and international labor migration in Russia. Available sources of statistical information and a survey of studies allow us to define them as quantitatively comparable, but having pronounced regional differences. Despite the gravitation of both internal and international migrants to the largest cities, Russian temporary labor migrants more often go to work in the regions of the North and the East of the country. Russians and foreign migrants complement each other in the regional labor markets rather than compete. The results of the recent research conducted by Institute for Social Analysis and Prediction Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, used in the article, allow us to state that the social and economic effects of international and internal labor migration are similar. At the same time the significance of migration for the economy of households and local budgets in Russia is underestimated.
The article has evaluated the influence of labor migration on the prospects for socio-economic development (SED) within different Russian Federation (RF) regions, with a focus on Nizhny Novgorod. It notes that labor shortages are a function of the country's complex demographic condition, calling labor migration a significant factor in the RF SED. At this stage, the commentary refocuses on the main characteristics of labor migration in Nizhny Novgorod region: ethnic composition, qualifications, industrial requisites and ongoing needs for worker employment. The critique also delves into the projected contribution of migrants to both the gross regional product and the regional budget, exploring the territory's projected goal of attracting labor migrants. In the course of the discussion, the document has identified the aspects impeding comprehensive SED, primarily the host country's ratio of migrants to the general population. In parallel, the paper has provided a study into Nizhny Novgorod's balance of students to labor migrants, claiming that the relationship exhibits certain potential risks that could negatively impact on the projected regional SED. The blueprint posits, in conclusion, that the RF has to adopt certain migrant-worker-related mechanisms to improve the operational efficiency of its worker-integration procedures.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.