Мобильность и ситуационные основания социального порядка
This paper analyses the determinants of national student mobility under the unified system of admission in Russia and evaluates the barriers which still limit educational mobility. It is argued that even with the Unified State Examination (USE) and the decreased transaction costs of applying to universities, student interregional national mobility is directed towards more developed regional educational markets and richer regions, but is still limited due to the financial constraints in the absence of the additional student support. Russia is an interesting case, because it consists of regions with highly variable socio-economic development and it represents local higher education markets with different levels of competition between universities, which may influence the decision to move. USE was intended to mitigate against these differences, and for political reasons under USE such differences are not considered the main barriers of access to higher education. However, this study takes into account the importance of the institutional characteristics of regions in student mobility.
From the beginning, sociology has tried to explain the emergence of social order, and to describe the conditions of solidarity. It has often been criticized for neglecting social conflicts, revolutions, and warfare. However, some sociologists have always been concerned with conflicts and revolutions. Warfare, indeed, has been a rare focus of sociological inquiry. It has only been during recent decades that sociologists have tentatively approached the topic, while the sociology of warfare is still a minor discipline for others. This may explain why social scholars still do not pay attention to the fact that the opposition of war and peace can be questioned. In sociology, social order before modernity is mainly understood as being imposed upon society by the police state which fulfills its legitimate monopoly on violence through specific institutions. Despite globalization, it is often assumed that the self-organization of society takes place within the secure borders of national states. We have to abandon this assumption since there are many instances of hybrid situations in the contemporary world. Examples of various undeclared wars, terror, the strengthening of secret intelligence services, overthrows of governments (coups d’etat), and revolutions challenge the traditional oppositions of the external and internal, or war and peace.
Warfare and social order have always been in an ambiguous relationship to each other. Any warfare causes disorganization and disorder, but it also causes reorganization and the beginning of a new order. Warfare is directly related to the redistribution of resources, border shifts, and the hybridization of social forms. War metaphors permeate into civil narratives. The chance of being killed may be higher in a peaceful city than at the front line. Wars can begin without a formal declaration. Peace is often made beyond legal systems, so there is always a possibility to breach peace without the fear of being accused of violations of agreements, or of being unreasonable. Warfare transgresses the border between the real and virtual worlds, since we live in the age of information-, financial-, hybrid-wars. There seems to be a new global situation which is reminiscent of the era of civil and religious wars, rather than the social order that has been a part of the foundational experience and the intellectual model for sociology at its birth. As a disturbing observation, it is also a challenge for the social sciences, which should not advocate for peaceful processes but should objectively analyze the current situation and the perspectives of social transformations.
With this special issue, we would like to go beyond conventional “sociologies of war”, which recently became a popular field of studies. We aim to radically reconsider the theoretical problem of the constitutive nature of warfare in terms of the (im)possibility of social order, i.e., when war is understood as ultima ratio but also as conditio humana.
Due to the technological development we faced problem of not implementing new technologies in order to help displaced people and refugees or sometimes we only introduce some basic services. It is necessary to remind about disasters which we unfortunately can’t predict and which usually completely change citizens’ life. People have to move from their neighborhood to other places (usually) to other countries where they do not know local cultural specification and traditions, local laws and they are not able to assimilate easily.
Technological development already introduced to us global networks – like Internet and GSM, and mobile technologies and devices – like cellphones, tablets and laptops.
The most common and popular solution is our cell phone. For the last 10 years manufacturers brought cell phones to the new level of development – with cell phone hardware and software called mobile applications which resulted to the fast growth of mobile devices and applications popularity. Mobile devices give us mobility and it is one of the key factors made them popular.
In Russia, the question of development of transport infrastructure is the hot is-sue. It is not only a necessary requirement for innovation program of economic growth, created by the president, but also an improving the quality of life and competitiveness of national economy factor. Till now, no attempts were made to systemize and provide a clear and just classification of airports` infrastructure development. This study is to fulfill this gap. Such a classification of the world can be of great practical importance for all the evolving airports, wishing to reach the world level of innovations. The study attempted to identify the transitional moments in the development of airports from a simple airfield to a modern hub. It is anticipated that the results of this study will be applicable to most companies conscious of the problem; and therefore the recommendations of the study will be generic for the private investors, the government and all the stakeholders.