Философия. Язык. Культура (вып.4)
This article deals with the conception of an Imperial Authority described in the “Siete Partidas” of Castilian king Alphonse the WIse (1252 – 1284) and its interpretation by a court lawyer of the Emperor of Spain Carl I (Carl V) called Gr. Lopez. The special attention is payed to the question of sovereignty, legal status of the emperor and of citizen’s right of insurrection.
This paper outlines the essential aspects of the Machiavelli’s religious concept. This theory was invented by Machiavelli in 16th century, and played a key role in the formation and development of the Reformation process in Germany. In this work we will try to rediscover Machiavelli’s religious concept, using work of some modern interpreters of his philosophical legacy.
In this paper we analyze the concept of "scientific revolution" in the work of the French philosopher, mathematician and economist Antoine Augustin Cournot (1801-1877). Cournot offers an original vision of the history and the historical process based on the concept of «chance» (hazard) which comes from his studies in the mathematical theory of probability. The history for Cournot is a combination of accidental and regular where the special role is played by great individuals. In science, it's great spirits who are able to produce a revolutionary restructuring of scientific knowledge by the discovery of new facts or by the invention of hypotheses that lead to improved organization and classification of the fundamental scientific principles.
The distance between the two essays - "The Socrates" by Pierre Hadot and "On the life teachings and sayings of famous philosophers" by Diogenes Laertius – amounts in more than one and a half thousand years. XX century philosophy historian Pierre Hadot represented Socrates as the typical exemplification of ancient philosophy. His approach explained the ancient philosophy primarily as a way of living, as a constant spiritual exercise for the sake of revelation and no way the theoretical doctrine. Philosophy historian of Hellenistic period Laertius considers to keep up with this attitude due to his lifetime and sphere of interest. In fact, he represents the ancient philosophy himself. Present analysis depicts the Hadot and Laertius representations of Socrates as a philosopher and deals with revealing of their similarities.
This paper is devoted to Kant’s transcendental philosophy as a special type of philosophy (philosophizing), or the transcendental paradigm. For this purpose we introduce new methodological concepts as the transcendental shift, perspective and paradigm. The basis for our interpretation of transcendentalism is cognitive-semantic reading of the Critics and the theory of "two aspects". Transcendentalism is defined as a new «experimental» (Erfahrung) metaphysics and «transcendental» — as the intermedia domain (between the immanent and the transcendent) of reality, as the "instrumental" part of our cognition (consciousness).
Demonstrating uncertain broadened understanding of epistemology as a common ground of phenomenology of religion and philosophical phenomenology that provides a possibility of even pseudo-phenomenological references the article proposes to specify epistemology in strict distinction from values on the basis of qualitative distinction between cognitive and emotional structures of consciousness. A possibility of such way of basing is confirmed by an example of Hebraic tradition that shows feelings, imbued with them sensa- tions and images non-cognitively. It is pointed out in the article a possibility of understanding the unity of consciousness on the basis of world itself, not on the basis of sensations as cognitive, the unity of feelings and values is also pointed out. The proposed way of epistemology specification would allow to correlate any non-positivist methodologies with scientific criteria, to overcome phenomenology of religion uncertainty as a confusion of research and theological spheres to the science of religion and would promote cognitive strictness of phenomenology.
In this paper the author explores how such phenomena of consciousness as a symbolization and a functioning of cultural phenomena are interrelated. It seems important to find out specifics of symbol as a product of symbolization, distinguish it from the other logical-semantic categories. To solve these problems, in general, the author turns to Losev’s and Cassirer’s approaches. As a result of the investigation, it becomes clear that there is a symbolic function of consciousness, which is primarily responsible for mediating of the material human perception, providing a principle for the organization of entire systems of meanings. The main paper thesis is the following: the principle of symbolical organization of the content plays a key role in the process of applying the meanings to the reality. So, it proves that the formation and functioning of the sphere of cultural phenomena is strongly influenced by symbolical principle.
Ninetieth century was the period of forming of main aspects of Russian mentality and reflection about possible Russian destiny. One special person lived in this period, he reflected on historical mission and destiny of Russia. He began from Slavyanofil’s ideas and overcame them; he carried through a long way and finally came to realization of the oncoming end of the world history and eschatological crisis. Truly he was a special person for his time, “lonely thinker”, Unacknowledged by contemporaries, lonely dreamer and poet, who dedicated his life to the only dream about great future of his country.
This paper provides some comparison of W. Ockham`s mental language hypothesis and J. Fodor`s LOT. Firstly, it deals with the problem of the methodological possibility of this comparison. It shows the history of the very modern reception of W. Ockham`s semantics. On the base of primarily epistemological and ontological foundations of Ockham`s semantics we try to show why the unification of these two conceptions within the framework of the one common hypothesis is totally incorrect.
This work is dedicated to an attempt to answer the question, what for irony is needed. Usually it is considered to be just a literary device or a special way of conversation. However as any other source of language it has its grounds in the intention of the author and compared to this intention form, with the help of which irony effects its object. Is this way of effect interesting to philosophy – this is the question to answer. For this aim it will be useful to define the concept of irony. At first I will propone the two opposite point of view on irony, which were offered by Friedrich Schlegel and Hegel. Both these thinkers discern in irony a philosophical concept, although each in his way. Schlegel considered the nature of irony in its ability to show imperfection of all possible ways of expression infinite content. For Schlegel such vision meant a possibility to approach closer to this content. On the contrary Hegel saw in this effect of irony an origin of lightweight attitude to this content. What is the reason of such opposite interpretations of irony? Is this not irony itself? This is to be found out. In the end I will try to propose a new concept of irony and make some conclusions about it.
The article is devoted to centrist political thought in the period of Bourbon Restoration in France (1814–1830) represented by three major movements. Traditionalist School developed a legitimate method in philosophy and affirmed that only the monarch wields unrestricted political power. Republicans and socialists claimed that revolution achievements should be secured on the level of state institutions. And between the upper and nether millstone were liberal centrists united in the group of Doctrinaires.
The article focuses on the narrative as a rhetoric strategy and a crucial interdisciplinary phenomenon connecting language, mind, culture and political impact. As a case study Victory speech-2012 and Inaugural speech-2013 by Barack Obama are taken. The examples demonstrate that narrative in the political discourse of Obama goes back to the rhetoric of religious parable. Key words: narrative, parable, conceptual metaphor, rhetoric strategies, political discourse, basic values.
This paper is devoted to the historico-philosophical analysis of existential-analytical investigation developed by Martin Heidegger. In this research we demonstrate that Heidegger in his investigation aims at a purpose of the conceptual transformation of ontology in its doctrinal and methodological aspects. That is explicated as an attempt of the essentially new comprehension of the traditional problems of West-European metaphysics.
Modern scholars study different types of time (mythological, philosophical, literary, astronomical) in Ancient Greek heritage according to the disciplinary principle. Nevertheless, such approach is determined by contemporary situation and not by the factual condition of intellectual sphere of Ancient Greece. The author tries to define some specific features of Greek understanding of temporality and elaborates a theme, which shows the rootedness of ancient Greek philosophy of time in a broader intellectual context.
In this piece, two main interpretations of the principle of symmetry are presented. The comparative analysis reveals the interconnection between the strong programme in the sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK) and the actor-network theory(ANT). Firstly, the article explores the relation of the symmetry principle to the other tenets of Bloor’s methodology. Secondly, the main features of the generalized symmetry principle in the “early” ANT by M. Callon and B. Latour are considered. As a result, it is stated that historically symmetrism of Latour is an extension of one of Bloor’s. And if the theoretical similarities of two approaches are taken into account, SSK-version of the principle could be regarded as one of the possible perspectives within ANT-version.
This article discusses the alternative possibilities condition in libertarian accounts of free will. It examines G.E. Moore’s conditional analysis and libertarian critics of this approach, than goes to libertarian view on the ability to do otherwise and its ontological conditions. Finally it shows that the ability to otherwise doesn’t suffice for freedom of will in libertarian sense and what is still needed remains mystery.