The book contains teaching materials and notes on the study course “Entrepreneurship”.
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This chapter elaborates on entrepreneurship in developed and developing countries and focuses on the optimization of entrepreneurial activities. Various scenarios are considered: independent functioning of the market, integration in the form of reorganization (mergers and acquisitions), integration in the form of clustering, and integration in the form of innovational networks and technological parks. The optimal structure of the integration processes and best-case scenarios for its implementation to accelerate the rate and increase the quality of economic growth are substantiated. The potential for uptake of integration processes in stimulating economic growth through entrepreneurship is determined by the level of institutionalization in an economy. In developed countries, all forms of company integration are characterized by the high level of institutionalization, which allows for their effective use for economic growth. Independent companies, mergers, and acquisitions restrain economic growth and reduce its quality, while clusters, technological parks, and innovational networks accelerate the rate of economic growth and increase its quality. In developing countries, integration processes in entrepreneurship have a different influence on economic growth and require further institutionalization
This paper investigates the persistence of self-employment in the districts of Kaliningrad, a Russian exclave, between 1925 and 2010. The area experienced a number of disruptive historical shocks during this period. This setting rules out the fact that the persistence of self-employment can be explained by the persistence of institutions and culture. Nevertheless, a high level of persistence of industry-specific self-employment rates is found. It is argued that a historical tradition of entrepreneurship created an awareness about the entrepreneurial potential of regions among the new population that was yielded after the collapse of the Soviet Union. This effect seems to be higher in regions where a specific industry was advanced in terms of technology use
The entrepreneurial activity might be significantly heterogeneous at the regional level. Cases of economies, which have not been socialistic in the past, demonstrate that spatial differences in entrepreneurship are persistent over time. However, it is still unclear whether such historical effects exist in emerging economies. This study investigates the relationship between entrepreneurial activity in regions of Russia in the late 1980s and the current level of regional entrepreneurship. In order to measure the entrepreneurial activity in Russia we use shares of self-employed in the labor force of a region. This indicator might be a more accurate measure than the traditional one based on the number of small and medium enterprises. In this study we test whether current spatial differences in entrepreneurship might be explained by the official or shadow entrepreneurial activity in the late 1980s. Our findings show that regions with high entrepreneurial activity in a shadow and official sector of Russian economy now demonstrate a high level of self-employment rates. Thus, the entrepreneurial activity has a long-term impact on the self-employment despite to the significant changes.
The innovative potential of Russian small business is not completely realized that is indicated by the comparison of its innovative activity with small entrepreneurship in many developed countries. The development of measures to support and stimulate the activity of small enterprises in Russia is attended, and the priority task is the search for mechanism to increase the participation of small enterprises in innovative transformations of economy. The aim of this research is to analyze development factors of small enterprises innovative activity in Russia considering substantial regional differentiation.
The conducted analysis was based on the data of Federal State Statistics Service representing the results of the survey of small enterprises innovative activity as well as the characteristics of socio-economic development of Russian regions. Multivariate statistical methods were applied. Principal component analysis was used to estimate the level of the development of small enterprises innovative activity. Discriminant analysis and logistic regression with further comparison of its results measured the influence of socio-economic characteristics of Russian regions on the level of small enterprises innovative activity.
Among tested socio-economic characteristics of Russian regions the expenditures on technological innovations of large and medium-sized enterprises, the indicators of population's educational potential, the level of ICT development and the population's standard of living had a significant impact on the level of small enterprises innovative activity development. The comparative analysis of the results of applied logistic regression and discriminant analysis showed high degree of their consistency and indicates appropriate predictive probabilities of the models.
The innovative activity of small enterprises in Russia is influenced by the complex factors characterizing scientific, technological and socio-economic regional development. The analysis allowed revealing key factors of small enterprises innovative activity growth and showed the necessity of targeted support of small business innovative activity considering regional features.
Abstract Purpose – This paper focuses on the motivation of females to start businesses in developed and emerging economies. Although the issues related to the motivation of entrepreneurs have been widely studied, there are a few studies focusing on the differences in women’s entrepreneurial motivation in countries with different levels of market economy development. Furthermore, existing studies on female founders mainly adapt the concepts that have often been developed in male-dominated paradigm. The purpose of this paper is to explore in depth motivations of female entrepreneurs in different contexts and discover the dissimilarities in women’s entrepreneurial motivations in countries with different levels of economic development. Design/methodology/approach – The qualitative research approach is applied in this study to explore the social-driven and profit-drivenmotives of female entrepreneurs. The authors have employed purposeful sampling to select cases. The authors investigated the motivations of 45 female entrepreneurs in Norway (12), Russia (21) and Ukraine (12). Semi-structured interviews were used to collect primary data. The authors have also triangulated the data collected frominterviews with the data available on the internet, company reports and newspaper publications. Findings – The findings indicate that women often pursuit business opportunities to satisfy social needs, rather than focusing on traditional business outcomes such as growth or profit. However, different contexts – the emerging economies context of Russia and Ukraine and the developed one of Norway – seem to influence the motivation to establish new ventures differently. The study found a stronger desire to contribute to a society’s needs among female founders in Norway compared to their counterparts in Russia and Ukraine. This indicates that cultural and social context in developed countries, such as in Norway, probably provides more possibilities for female entrepreneurs for self-realisation elsewhere leaving more room for focusing on societal issues in business in comparison with emerging countries contexts. Originality/value – A novel conceptual contribution is the exploration of links between the social-driven and profit-driven motives of female entrepreneurs in emerging and developed economises. The study also adds to debates relating to context embeddedness of smaller firms.
The current economic problems of the formation and functioning of the domestic business, as well as the factors and existing opportunities for its further development are considered.
The rise of creative industries is closely connected with the range of changes concerning socio-economic development in postindustrial and digital economy; reflects new trends in consumer behavior and innovations in business models. Entrepreneurship in creative industries is very attractive sphere for small and medium-sized businesses, it gives new opportunities for cooperation between representatives of creative industries and other agents of economic and social relations. An interest to creative industries development could be observed from different stakeholders across Russia. Issues of effective functioning and interaction of commercial and non-profit organizations and entrepreneurs in creative sector are becoming the key points for successful development of markets in creative sphere.
This manual is designed to expand knowledge in the field of creative entrepreneurship, to understand the particular features of market structure from supply and demand side, and to apply practical recommendations and tools for solving specific problems that an entrepreneur faces in his activities. The manual consists of 3 chapters, the text reveals the definition and boundaries of the creative industries sector; economic bases of demand and supply side of market for products and services created by creative workers and having a symbolic and cultural value (Chapter 1). Besides, authors pay attention on dealing business in the digital environment and infrastructure for creative entrepreneurs. Chapter 2 of the manual reveals the issues of interaction and communication with consumers, identifying and working with various consumers segments, analyses factors that influence consumer’s decision-making process. The manual presents practical examples (cases) and tasks that allow to master and improve the tools of marketing research. Chapter 3 describes in detail methodology and stages of the business modeling in creative industries. Questions for self-examination, cases and exercises make it possible to combine the theory and practice of the questions studied. The manual is addressed to a wide range of readers, can be used by educational institutions, it is useful to the industry representatives as an additional theoretical and practical guide. The manual is created in the framework of the project “Creative Grasp” supported by the Council of Nordic Countries.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.
портовый менеджмент, показатели деятельности, анализ эффективности, система учета, распределение издержек, методы анализа деятельности портовой системы
At present many industries reveal tendency for setting up of vertically integrated companies (VIC) the structure of which unites all technological processes. This tendency proved its efficiency in oil industry where coordination of all successive stages of technological process, namely, oil prospecting and production -oil transportation - oil processing - oil chemistry - oil products and oil chemicals marketing, is necessary. The article considers specific features of introduction of "personnel management" module at enterprises of oil and gas industry.
vertically integrated companies; personnel management