Философия человека. Материалы Второго научного симпозиума
The empirical study of the relationship of psychological separation from the parents with life satisfaction was performed with the participation of 375 middle-aged women with different marital status. It is proved that women who are married, more positively perceive themselves and their lives, their separation from parents is experienced by them as less conflict. Harmonious separation from parents is directly related to marital satisfaction. A woman’s separation from parents is differently related to her life satisfaction depending on her marital status. The most harmonious separation from parents is observed at women in remarriages.
The review article examines the restorative potential of interaction with flora for the physical and mental health of a person and their psychological well-being. The plant world is a particular part of nature, characterized by responsiveness, aesthetic appeal, and unobtrusive. These qualities make plants an effective means of restoring cognitive abilities, emotional state, as well as developing personal effectiveness and behavioral competence. At the same time, it is noted that, due to the phenomenon of plant blindness, their recovery resource is not used enough. The types of psychotherapy using plants (ecotherapy, horticultural therapy, adventure) are analyzed. Theories explaining the mechanisms of influence of plants on the people's psyche (the biophilia hypothesis, the attention restoration theory, the stress recovery (reduction) theory, and psychotherapeutic theory of phyto-resonance) are presented. The article collects the results of studies showing the beneficial effect of different forms of interaction with the plant world (gardening, walking in the forest and park, simulation of the natural environment) on physical health and recovery from various types of somatic diseases, on attention, creativity, behavior, and social development of a person. The effectiveness of interaction with flora is also noteworthy in the case of working with particular groups of people (adolescents from risk groups, offenders, and carriers of psychiatric diagnoses). We analyze the limitations of research, mainly related to their design.
The problem of new existential states that psychologists or psychiatrists are facing in their practice in relation to accelerating changes in human existence is discussed. The classifications of mental illness are replenished with new nosological units and treatment recommendations, because of a changing world. The definition of health as the absence of disease becomes untenable due to its inability to shed light on the nature some of pathologies. An understanding health in terms of psychological well-being is the most perspective nowadays. Various authors recognize spirituality as one of the integral components of human well-being. Researchers attribute to spirituality the function, which moderating effects (reduced or leveled) of stressors and adverse life circumstances on human well-being. The work poses the problem of spiritual health as the possibility of mastering spiritual experience and its integration into a personality worldview. Substantiated that psychiatry can also to widen the attention scope on questions spiritual health and psychological well-being.
The review article is devoted to modern research of “grit”, personality trait, which was identified and described by A.L. Duckworth, a professor of the University of Pennsylvania. There is no well-established translation of the notion into Russian. Our option is based on the conceptual understanding of the phenomenon and the established tradition of describing “grit” as a personal trait in the Russian psychology. Modern studies show that grit is a reliable predictor of high academic results and psychological well-being. However, not only grit, but also other personality trait explain success. Then the questions about the uniqueness of grit and how it differs from other predictors raise. We will explore what specificity grit has and why outcomes are contradictory sometimes. To conclude we consider that grit can be an important personal resource.
In the study self-compassion is proposed to consider in terms of its role in the adaptation of a person, understood as the maintenance of psychological well-being and functionality in different life situations. Another ultimate goal was to adapt the Fears of compassion scale to assess the level of compassion, as at present no such methods adapted to Russian-speaking culture exist. At the first stage of the study, the primary psychometric development and validation of the main research tool was carried out. At the second stage of the study, the hypotheses were tested if self-compassion is 1) positively related to psychological well-being and authenticity of the individual; 2) negatively related to symptomatic (not clinical) depression. 289 respondents (N = 289; 232 – female, 57 – male) participated in the research. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Fears of Compassion Scale, the Authenticity Scale, and the Warwick-Edinburgh Psychological Well-Being Scale were used. Fears of Compassion Scale has demonstrated the high scores of validity and reliability, but its factor structure was not confirmed. A modified version of the questionnaire, suitable for Russian-speaking culture, was developed. It also shows that self-compassion is positively associated with psychological well-being and authenticity of an individual, while fear of self-compassion is combined with depressive symptoms. It is concluded that self-compassion is an adaptive feature of the person, which improves a person's interaction with him- or herself and with the world and allows maintaining the integrity of the Self and the quality of life in different life situations.