12 Solutions for a New Education: Report by the Center for Strategic Research and the Higher School of Economics
Human capital is produced primarily by the education system. Today it is the most important factor in the development of economy and society. By investing in human capital, economic growth rates above the average world-level can be achieved, which is necessary in order to strengthen Russia’s positions in the context of increasing global competition. The report proposes 12 projects, aiming not only for the development of education, but for making a decisive contribution to the “breakthrough” of the country in economic, social and technological development by activating the creative potential of the Russian population as a whole and self-realization of each individual. The ultimate result of all the proposed 12 solutions will be a steady increase in the quality of life of the Russian people.
This article analyzes social and cultural adaptation of Korean youth in the former USSR in 1920s–1930s. After the March First Movement in 1919, the Korean youth were cruelly prosecuted by the Japanese gendarmerie. Thousands of young Koreans were forced to leave their homeland and seek shelter in Manchuria or the Russian (Soviet) Far East. The adaptation of Korean youth to economic, political, and cultural life in Soviet Russia had several stages, as they sought to obtain legal status and find a niche in the production chain sufficient to sustain their long-term existence in a strange land. Each turning period in Russian history transformed the mentality and sense of national identity of Korean youth, and consequently Korean culture and language underwent transformation. With each transition period, the Korean migrants’ native language was used less and less in public places, and over time, it was spoken only among family and friends. Thus, the Koreans gradually became integrated into Russian culture and the Russian language became their primary language of communication.
The article is devoted to the analysis of a teacher activity content, who directs the research of student. The manegement of research is considered as a kind of activity, in the course of which the functions of education, upbringing and tutoring are implemented all together. The authors draw the attention to the complexity of these functions and an inadequacy of a number of methodological procedures for the implementation of this activity.
Popularity of online courses with open access and unlimited student participation, the so-called massive open online courses (MOOCs), has been growing intensively. Students, professors, and universities have an interest in accurate measures of students' proficiency in MOOCs. However, these measurements face several challenges: (a) assessments are dynamic: items can be added, removed or replaced by a course author at any time; (b) students may be allowed to make several attempts within one assessment; (c) assessments may include an insufficient number of items for accurate individual-level conclusions. Therefore, common psychometric models and techniques of Classical Test Theory (CTT) and Item Response Theory (IRT) do not serve perfectly to measure proficiency. In this study we try to cover this gap and propose cross-classification multilevel logistic extensions of the common IRT model, the Rasch model, aimed at improving the assessment of the student's proficiency by modeling the effect of attempts and by involving non-assessment data such as student's interaction with video lectures and practical tasks. We illustrate these extensions on the logged data from one MOOC and check the quality using a cross-validation procedure on three MOOCs. We found that (a) the performance changes over attempts depend on the student: whereas for some students performance ameliorates, for other students, the performance might deteriorate; (b) similarly, the change over attempts varies over items; (c) student's activity with video lectures and practical tasks are significant predictors of response correctness in a sense of higher activity leads to higher chances of a correct response; (d) overall accuracy of prediction of student's item responses using the extensions is 6% higher than using the traditional Rasch model. In sum, our results show that the approach is an improvement in assessment procedures in MOOCs and could serve as an additional source for accurate conclusions on student's proficiency.
By the eighteenth century, medicine was grappling with rapidly expanding knowledge and technologies (Williams, 2000). So that multiple standards of care for the same condition were not in conict, specialties based on physician affinity developed out of generalist practice. By the late twentieth century, nations diverged in a number of specialties earning official recognition, but a singular trend of growth in specialization was unchanged. Specialization may seem to be ornamentation that denotes technical prowess and knowledge advancement, but it is essential in that it alters workforce self-organization and delivery of care, and channels patients into more finely distinguished pathways of care.* Specialization legitimates medical professionalism in the public eye, especially when physicians validate the importance of generalists. In 1999, major medical organizations promulgated a “Charter on Medical Professionalism” that espoused professionals, including specialists, as activists in healthcare reform.
The paper addresses the questions of data science education of current importance. It aims to introduce and justify the framework that allows flexibly evaluate the processes of a data expedition and a digital media created during it. For these purposes, the authors explore features of digital media artefacts which are specific to data expeditions and are essential to accurate evaluation. The rubrics as a power but hardly formalizable evaluation method in application to digital media artefacts are also discussed. Moreover, the paper documents the experience of rubrics creation according to the suggested framework. The rubrics were successfully adopted to two data-driven journalism courses. The authors also formulate recommendations on data expedition evaluation which should take into consideration structural features of a data expedition, distinctive features of digital media, etc.
The invitation to serve as Minister of Education and lead a bold and significant reform of an education system never comes with an instruction manual. Leading such an opportunity effectively, requires access to the best knowledge about how to make change happen. In this book, Ministers of Education and system level leaders in ten countries share what they learned in the process of advancing audacious reforms aimed at transforming public education so schools would better prepare students with the necessary skills to participate civically and economically in a rapidly changing world. A product of the Global Education Innovation Initiative, a practice-research consortium of leaders and institutions that advance knowledge to support the transformation of public education systems to augment their relevancy, the book is anchored in the proposition that successful educational change requires the appropriate combination of knowledge based on practice with knowledge based on research. The contributors to this volume embody the best qualities of reflective practitioners who can make visible what they have learned from their practice. In sharing with what they have learned with others, they demonstrate also the generosity and commitment of those who understand that we all share responsibility for the education of the entirety of the world’s children. In this book, the reader will find discerning and intimate accounts of what it is like to transform the largest organization in society, so it does a better job educating all children. The themes that resonate in their accounts across systems as diverse as Australia, Brazil, Colombia, India, Mexico, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Russia and Singapore are fascinating, surprising and valuable to those who hope to leave a legacy as Ministers of Education. Fernando M. Reimers is the Ford Foundation Professor of the Practice of International Education and Director of the Global Education Innovation Initiative and of the International Education Policy Masters Program at Harvard University. His research and teaching focus on understanding how to educate children and youth so they can thrive in the 21st century. Over more than three decades he has advised Ministers of Education and other leaders of education institutions in Africa, Asia, the Americas, Europe and the Middle East.
This article describes the dynamic optimization model with human capital as a group educational characteristic (along with these groups population) and as the main factor of their production. The main feature of this model is inequality in qualification which leads towards the run for the middle as unlinear dynamics of educational effectiveness for different groups. The research of the simulation model in one specific regime allowed to describe two different scenarios. They include the development of the groups and run for the middle dynamics. These results allow stating conceptual usability of the model for real society dynamics description.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.