The difficult economic conditions that characterized the economic sphere of the country's life for the last few years have once again actualized the problems of assessing the well-being of the population, not only objective, but also subjective. This article is devoted to defining the boundaries and revealing the characteristics of subjective well-being and ill-being in modern Russian society. On the basis of the all-Russian representative sociological survey conducted in 2018 by the Institute of Sociology of the FCTAS RAS, by cluster analysis zones of subjective well-being and subjective ill-being are identified, as well as an intermediate zone. It is shown that the zone of subjective well-being is smaller today than the zone of subjective ill-being; its representatives are characterized by high assessments of all aspects of their lives, including those not related to income and consumption, while subjective ill-being is reflected in a pronounced dissatisfaction with material situation and leisure and holiday opportunities, as well as with satisfactory assessments of other aspects of life. The zone of subjective ill-being is formed not only and even not so much by low incomes, but due to the problems that its representatives face in their daily lives and which they are not able to solve on their own. Differences in the situation of Russians from the two polar zones lead to a differentiation of their requests for social policy, which, however, is reflected mostly not in the divergence of their priorities in this respect, but in the intensity of the request. The key areas in which the entire population expects assistance from the state today is the provision of fair wages and the establishment of the health care system. The specifics of the situation of the selected groups indicates that without resolving these problems, the zone of subjective ill-fortune is unlikely to decline even in the context of rising population incomes. As far as their localization is concerned, the zone of ill-being is shifted to the rural areas, the older populations and the manual labor, while the zone of well-being is localized today in the young urban "middle class".
The article presents the results of a comparative research of the severity of the problem of income inequality in the opinion of Russians, compared with opinions of the population of other European countries. The research is based on the data of the European Social Survey for 2008 and 2012. In order to solve the research tasks, the author analyzes the opinion of Russians about the level of income inequality in the country and carries out a cross-country comparative analysis of the degree of demands for the reduction of inequality. Special attention is paid to the analysis of socio-economic indicators that determined the difference between these demands in Russia and other European countries.
From the moment when wide spread of large scale assessments in sociology and economics began, the most commonly used indicators of peoples’ qualifications are the number of years spent in education and the possession of a high school/college/university diploma. But what if these formal indicators are unreliable under certain conditions and do not reflect actual literacy and competency of people? This article, drawing on data from the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC), questions accuracy of the basic educational indicators in Russia. There is a linear relationship between the possession of a formal graduation diploma and the measurement of PIAAC literacy of the able-bodied population in OECD countries, including the Eastern European ones. However, the analysis shows that in Russia there is an inconsistency between literacy and formal educational status. This fact in itself casts doubt on the effectiveness of formal education indicators in Russia. The social implications resulting from this inconsistency become apparent through an international comparison of research results. These ill effects have been documented in the areas of employment, education and social reproduction and in the social self-awareness of the Russian people.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.