Geoinformation representation of maritime knowledge flows: new frontiers of coastalization
In this article, we discuss the role of second-tier cities in the socio-economic and innovative development ofcountries. A methodological approach is proposed for carrying out a comparative analysis of thecontribution of second-tier and capital cities in the national settlement systems of Europe and Russia.The proposed approach was tested by analysing the contribution of second-tier cities to thedemographic development of several countries. In European countries, a more homogeneousdistribution of the population between capitals and second-tier cities was observed. Thisfindingindicates a higher competitiveness of European cities in comparison, for example, with Russian cities interms of human capital attraction and retention. In Russia, the national settlement system traditionallypivots around Moscow and St. Petersburg. On the other hand, the population dynamics of secondcities in Eastern Europe is negative for most countries, thereby indicating a migration outflow of theirinhabitants toward national capitals. The conducted comparison of the key economic indicators (GDPand GDP per capita) of urbanized areas in all analysed countries showed second-tier cities to be lesscompetitive than national capitals. In this respect, European cities seem to be more successful on anational scale compared to Russian cities with a population of over one million people. Thecontribution of second-tier cities to innovative development is higher in Western European countries,compared to Eastern Europe, where the innovation potential is largely concentrated in capitals. Interms of this indicator, Russia occupies an intermediate position.