Ислам и террор
In Europe the interaction of biker clubs with Christian churches is not surprising, biker churches and services became a usual thing, Catholics and Lutherans, led by their pastors, regularly hold large-scale national motorcycle events. In Russia biker movement emerged as a copy of west motocycle associations, but it gradually acquired its own specific features imposed, in particular, by the interaction between bikers and the Russian Orthodox Church. Such intertwining of Orthodox Christianity and biker clubs generates specific practices such as religious processions on motorcycles, motocycle religious services, motopilgrimages etc. Bikers take active part in patriotic events. Forms of interaction between bikers and the Russian Orthodox Church are the subject of my study.
The article touches approach of the modern Islamic legal thought to the Islamic state and caliphate. The author explains the fundamental principles if Islamic concept of the power (caliphate) and points out that this concept was gradually deviating from real political practice. The caliphate itself remained as a political institution till the collapse of the Ottoman Empire after the World War I. After emergence of Islamic State of Iraq and Levant (ISIL) the caliphate converted to concrete political project. In June 2014 ISIL which changed its name to become “Islamic State” (IS) declared creation of caliphate. In practice the Shariat implementation in IS comes to mass killings, forcing nonmuslims to adopt Islam, interference into internal life of Muslim states and terror attacks. The modern Islamic legal thought criticizes IS severely stressing on its violence of religious postulates and Shariat provisions.
The research applied for research abilities of critical discourse analysis for new religious movements’ analysis. A long tradition of religion research in social sciences had a lot of theoretical issues. In this paper we show how theory is used for empirical survey.
The paper contains an academic program of discipline «Sociology of Religion and Secularization». The discipline can be included in different humanities academic programs.
In 2006, Russia amended its competition law and added the concepts of ‘collective dominance’ and its abuse. This was seen as an attempt to address the common problem of ‘conscious parallelism’ among firms in concentrated industries. Critics feared that the enforcement of this provision would become tantamount to government regulation of prices. In this paper we examine the enforcement experience to date, looking especially closely at sanctions imposed on firms in the oil industry. Some difficulties and complications experienced in enforcement are analysed, and some alternative strategies for addressing anticompetitive behaviour in concentrated industries discussed.