Chinese Students at the International Lenin School in Moscow, 1926-1938: Light from the archives
By 1930, the Bolsheviks had spent a lot of money five million rubles for training the Chinese revolutionaries. In the Soviet Union there was a whole network of special institutions for them. Soviet support of the Chinese Communist movement in the 1920s – 1930s was truly all-encompassing. Among these institutions the International Lenin School (MLSh) occupied a distinctive place. It functioned longer than other schools, from 1926 to 1938, and it was especially designated for the CCP and other foreign Communist parties’ top cadres.
Unlike bigger sections of the International Union of Revolutionary Writers (IURW), such as the German, American or French ones, the British section was created in two stages, first in 1930-2 and then in 1935. Whereas the second attempt was quite successful and the British section of the IURW of 1934 can be studied through a variety of bureaucratic documents, the first left hardly any typically bureaucratic paperwork, but correspondence between the British and Soviet representatives of the union. The letters come together as an adventure story that is of interest within the institutional history of the IURW as well as a wider context of the Soviet cultural diplomacy.
The Soviet assistance to the leading political forces in China, including the Guomindang, has been always an object of numerous discussions. Soviet/Russian historians tend to emphasize its major importance for the political development of China, but their Chinese counterparts belittle its significance quite often. Why is it still difficult to evaluate the quantity and the quality of this assistance? What criteria should be used for its objective assessment? These questions are answered in the book by the historian and sinologist Alexander Yurkevich (the National Research University “Higher School of Economics”, Moscow). Judging from documents (some of them have never been known) the author shows why and how Moscow’s assistance to the Guomindang in the 1920’s with advisers, finance and material supplies did not become an instrument of the Moscow plans in China, but rather helped the Guomindang undermine these plans and form its own strategy of the unification of China.
This book will help specialists in social history, students and general readers interested in the history of China and Russia learn more about the subject.
This article is based upon newly discovered archival documents from the Russian Archives of Social and Political History (RGASPI), including Deng Xiaoping's personal files as well as personal files of his classmates. It thoroughly examines Deng Xiaoping's days in Moscow in 1926-27 when he took classes at Sun Yat-sen University - leading Comintern school of higher learning. The authors meticulously research ideological and political impact of the Bolshevik education on the future great Chinese reformer. They conclusively demonstrate that Deng's study in Moscow at the time when the New Economic Policy was emphasized in the USSR greatly enriched his Marxist views. It laid theoretical foundations for the imminent emergence of the so-called Socialism with Chinese Characteristics in the People's Republic of China.
After clearing of the Far East of interventionists in 1922 – 1923 the main task of the young Soviet state was the establishment of diplomatic relations between Moscow and Tokyo. Representatives of the USSR and Japan had been signed on January, 20th, 1925 "the Convention on main principles of mutual relations between the USSR and Japan". The memorandum of general Tanaka Giiti (on July, 25th, 1927) about bases of a policy in Manchuria and Mongolia predetermined aggressive plans of Japan not only these territories, but also Russia. Koreans in territory of the Soviet Far East have appeared "hostages" of two countries USSR and Japan. Changes in foreign policy between these countries directly were reflected in destiny of the Soviet Koreans. Since 1927 in Korea from the Japanese government repressions and persecutions in relation to Koreans have amplified. In USSR Koreans began to accuse of "the Japanese espionage". Repressions have amplified in 1931 -1932 and in 1937 – 1938.
The chapter looks in the Soviet publications on South Africa from the 1920s until 1950. The authors centre their attention on the Comintern period and anlyse the works of Soviet academics who were connected with this organisation. They also look into the post-war period, when new political realities for in the world and in South Africa should have dictated new approaches to South Africa. This, however, was hampered by the ideological constrains in the Soviet society of the time.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.