Трехмерное моделирование при исследовании геометрических изображений в искусстве малых форм верхнего палеолита и мезолита Восточной Европы
One of the plots of the portable art forms of Eastern Europe is abstract, geometric, symbolic images that cannot be deciphered directly. Most of the currently known such geometric images from the archaeological sites of the Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic of Eastern Europe were applied to finished bone products — tools, weapons, household and non-utilitarian items, as well as bones of various animals without traces of processing using various cutting techniques. The bone is well preserved in the cultural layers of the sites of the late Pleistocene — early Holocene of the Russian Plain, which makes objects from this material an important source for the study of geometric images. However, despite the richness of the source base, the problem of classification and systematization of geometric images in their basis is described. A method for visualizing and systematizing research results and providing the art of small forms remains poorly developed. The purpose of the article is to consider the issues of practical application of three-dimensional 3D modeling in the study of art objects of small forms of the Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic. The authors describe the practice of photographing such objects and the peculiarities of the lighting schemes and camera positioning, developed taking into account the specifics of the geometry and material of the documented objects. The minimal technical requirements for the resolution of the models have been determined, which provide the possibility of using visualization algorithms to study fine engravings on bone and stone. The practical application of mathematical visualization algorithms both directly on polygonal models and on height maps built on remote access to them using modern web technologies is proposed.