Конвергенция региональной плотности населения в России за 120 лет
A relative uniformity of population distribution on the territory of the country is of importance from socio-economic and strategic perspectives. It is especially important in the case of Russia with its densely populated west and underpopulated east. This paper considers changes in population density in Russian regions, which occurred from 1897 to 2017. It explores whether there was convergence in population density and what factors influenced it. For this purpose, it uses the data both at county and regional levels, which are brought to common borders for comparability purposes. Further, the models of unconditional and conditional β-convergence are estimated, taking into account the spatial dependence. The paper concludes that the population density equalization took place in 1897—2017 at the county level and in 1926—1970 at the regional level. In addition, the population density increase is shown to be influenced not only by spatial effects, but also by political and geographical factors such as climate, number of GULAG camps, and the distance from the capital city.
Infectious disease mortality occupies a small share in the structure of mortality in developed countries. However, it is concentrated in relatively young ages, and it entails significant economic costs. From 1990 to 2018, Russian regions showed different dynamics of mortality from infectious diseases. Some regions managed to reverse the negative growth trend in mortality in the mid-2000s, but there are regions where growth in mortality continues to this day. Mortality from infectious diseases in the regions safest and least well on the indicator differs by a factor of 10. The worst dynamics are demonstrated by Volga, Urals, and Western Siberia regions as well as Altai Krai, Irkutsk Region, Primorsky Krai, and Chukotka. The purpose of this article is to study the economic factors determining mortality from infectious diseases in Russian regions. Estimating a fixed effect panel model based on data by the Federal State Statistics Service shows that regions with higherper capita cash incomes demonstrate lower mortality from infectious diseases. Alcohol consumption is a factor associated with higher mortality from infectious diseases. Mortality from infectious diseases is higher in regions with a larger population per doctor and with a lower capacity of outpatient facilities. Important information for decision-makers responsible for reforming the healthcare system in terms of reducing the number of doctors consists in the presence of high elasticity of mortality from infectious diseases to the change in the population per doctor even in the absence of epidemics. Conclusions of the study could serve as a guideline for developing parameters of state health programs.
This paper studies the influence of industry localization and region economy diversification on firm profitability in Russia and provides quantitative estimation to such an influence. In this paper two main hypotheses are tested: (a) industry localization and region economy diversification improve enterprise profitability and (b) both localization and diversification influence smaller companies rather than bigger ones. Localization effects are estimated via Ellison-Glaeser index. Diversification is measured with Herfindahl-Hirschman index (HHI). The data set consists of 650 thousand of observations and approximates the full set of commercial real sector Russian companies in 2017. The indicator ‘number of employees’ is used for Ellison-Glaeser and HHI indexes calculation but this indicator contains missing values. To avoid distortions in the indexes’ magnitudes missing values are estimated in multiple ways that given closely same results. All companies were divided into four groups by scale (big, medium, small and micro). The regression models for testing two main hypotheses are estimated separately for each group. Method of regression estimation is OLS. It was found that profitability increases with the degree of industry localization and the effect is stronger for bigger companies. An increase of Ellison-Glaeser index by 0,1 results in 0,7–7,5% rise of sales margin. The effect from region diversification was found only for small and micro companies. HHI growth of 0,1 increases sales margin by 1,5–2,6%.
The chapter traces and explains responses to deinstitutionalisation reforms in the Russian regions. Three parallel policy shifts are taken into account: deinstitutionalisation (DI), public sector reform, and social provision reform. Considered together, they shed light on the logic behind childcare reform implementation at the regional level in the broader context of social policy transformations in Russia. Taking a neo-institutional perspective, the chapter studies compliance and resistance as two types of responses to the federal demand to introduce a new institutional design. Three institutional changes are in focus: (1) the restructuring of public providers with an emphasis on support services and the temporary placement of children; (2) changes to which ministries are in charge of alternative care; and (3) downsizing public sector agents traditionally responsible for this type of care and outsourcing social services to NGOs. The chapter seeks to identify regions that either comply with or resist these reforms, exploring how regional contexts explain variation in responses. The chapter’s empirical analysis reveals regional patterns of resistance and compliance as well as exceptional cases and the socioeconomic contexts which account for them.
This study analyses how subjective well-being indicators and territorial social identities vary in the Russian frontier and core regions. It is assumed that the frontier history of settlement and border location of the regions has an impact on various socio-cultural and socio-political features of its communities, thus shaping the specific territorial social identities of people living on the front lines of Russia. These identities might be in conflicting relations, especially when taken as a factor for shaping specific public attitudes and moods, in particular, satisfaction with life. Based on the surveys in four border, or frontier and two central, or core, regions, conducted in 2016 (total n of respondent = 5000), the paper presents an explanatory model for life satisfaction in a comparative aspect, where different factors of socio-economic, socio-demographic, psychological, attitudinal, and cultural nature are considered. The impact of different territorial social identities on life satisfaction in the frontier and central regions was revealed. For both groups of the regional samples, the assessment of the state of affairs in the region, and the country as well, demonstrated a stable positive effect on life satisfaction, as well as the factors of locus of control, income group, and economic optimism. The predictor of social cohesion appeared to be significant only for frontier regions of Russia, in line with the classical concepts of the frontier. At the same time, age and religiosity factors predicted life satisfaction in the core regions only. This study contributes to the research on the border and frontier areas, as well as regional specifics of Russian regions, representing it as a vast and heterogeneous in terms of socio-cultural and socio-economic division country.