Анатомия хайпа вокруг No Man’s Sky: интернет-платформы и барьеры демонстрации видеоигр
The article is devoted to a story happened to one of the most awaited videogames over the last years called ‘No Man’s Sky’. The videogame has been developed for five years and during all this time it has been surrounded by hype and media frenzy that produced high expectations. The game was expected to be a breakthrough in the game industry, however when the game was released it received low assessments by the game industry media and negative reviews of the gamers. The developers were accused of not providing the options they showed in trailers. Based on theoretical resources of the platform studies and a notion of demonstration, the authors try to figure out why the game failed. The analysis of trailers and the YouTube users’ comments show that the game failed not as a consequence of direct lies by developers but due to understatement and non-informative character of the game demonstrations which led to various interpretations according to the work of imagination. This is also caused by the barriers that the forms of video game-play demonstrations have as they do not convey true game-playing experiences. On the other hand, the ‘No Man’s Sky’ failure is due to some YouTube specifics being a platform which lets the audience to participate in the creation of something of a ‘media version’ of ‘No Man’s Sky’ reality. The ‘media version’ outperformed the game itself in its grandiosity and scale. The problem was that the developers did not limit the growth of the ‘media version’, and it ended in game failure. Thus, one may talk of a multiple character of modern cultural objects with users participating in their creation.
The article derives from the results of ethnographic research conducted by the author in 2003- 2010 and draws on fi eldwork data and focused biographical interviews (2007-2010) with technical specialists working in Moscow, St. Petersburg, Minsk, and Rostov-on-Don. The goal of the article is to take the area known as data recovery for a case study and illustrate the active part that user communities play in maintaining computerized technologies, developing innovations, and shaping technological service markets.
Formation of democratic societies of the Western type presupposes appearance on the historical scene of a new strong actor - the bourgeois class: "No bourgeoisie, no democracy" (Barrington Moore). The articulation and defense of vital interests of that class creates a new social space - "the bourgeois public sphere" which helps to make up "counterbalance" to absolutism of a corporate state - a civil society, the core of which is composed by public opinion. In the confrontation between the authorities and society one of the most important roles is played by the press that provides free debate and discussion of generally valid problems, especially economic and political. The recognition of the mass media role was stamped in its characterization in XIII century as "the fourth power". Technological development of the media incredibly expanded its functions, turning journalists into creating informational analogue of reality, saturating daily life with new meanings. Methods of the representation of reality, the specific nature of political influence of journalists - key members of the reflexive elites (Helmut Shelski), are the themes of this article.
Публичная сфера, журналистика, четвертая власть, порядки знания, Повседневность, научное и повседневное знание, экспертиза, Репрезентация, public sphere, journalism, fourth estate, orders of knowledge, Everyday life, scientific and everyday knowledge, Expertise, representation
Contemporary museums of memory are united by an important social function of perpetuation and edification, but each museum is contextual and creates its own form of representation, rhetoric, and a measure of performance memory of past events. Describing and understanding specific genres as social actions in a particular social and political context allows researchers to explore museums more effectively. A prerequisite for this efficiency is perhaps the performativity of current styles of museum exposition, as well as tracking the resonance as a response to the coherence of the content and form of museum practice. Thus, a museum visitor is not only an object of a directed museum narrative that has social and rhetorical-moralizing tasks, but also a subject resonating in interactive commemoration mode, experiencing and emotionally responding to a participant in the interaction. So, the object of this article is emotions and affects, generated intentionally or spontaneously in relation to plots of institutionalized commemoration. Empirical cases, designed to illustrate the production of emotions and affects, will cover a wide repertoire of commemoration - from restrained to pathetic, museum and extramusean, imposed and spontaneous.
This is a review article on Artemy Magun’s book «Unity and loneliness» (Moscow: New Literary Review, 2011). The main research principles of the author are critically analysed. His book is viewed as an important contribution to the Russian political philosophy, however, there are some places in the book that should be discussed or rewritten more thoroughly.
Th e article is devoted to the secondary nomination. The essence of the act of nomination is to fi x the communication of the subject and name, the phenomenon and its designation, the structures of the consciousness and its object. Man picks the right means of nomination when forms a notion of an object or phenomenon. The results showed that one of the types of secondary nomination is a semantic transposition, which does not change the material appearance of rethoughtful unit and leads to formation of its new value, i.e. for multiple purposes, namely, to metaphor, in particular, an anthropomorphic comparison.
Nowadays social networks play a crucial rule in a company’s relationship with investors, requiring a stronger emphasis and more effort on the development of social media channels. We discuss a definition, classification and comparison for social media types. Then we consider the importance of social media for a company and investors, and provide evidence that social media use by firm can improve its stock price informativeness. A unique dataset was collected for an international analysis. Finally, an implementation plan is suggested for firms to maintain and manage social media.
The collection of papers includes the articles, which examine some of the most actual problems of the modern Chinese studies. Among these problems are the connections between our two contries in the period, when the Chinese Communist Party came to power, and on the modern stage, the problems of formation and development of Chinese "global cities", the development of the law in the PRC, the history of the Guomindang, history and modern condition of the Chinese armed forces.
The stereotype content model (SCM), originating in the United States and generalized across nearly 50 countries, has yet to address ethnic relations in one of the world’s most influential nations. Russia and the United States are somewhat alike (large, powerful, immigrant-receiving), but differ in other ways relevant to intergroup images (culture, religions, ideology, and history). Russian ethnic stereotypes are understudied, but significant for theoretical breadth and practical politics. This research tested the SCM on ethnic stereotypes in a Russian sample (N = 1115). Study 1 (N = 438) produced an SCM map of the sixty most numerous domestic ethnic groups (both ethnic minorities and immigrants). Four clusters occupied the SCM warmth-by-competence space. Study 2 (N = 677) compared approaches to ethnic stereotypes in terms of status and competition, cultural distance, perceived region, and four intergroup threats. Using the same Study 1 groups, the Russian SCM map showed correlated warmth and competence, with few ambivalent stereotypes. As the SCM predicts, status predicted competence, and competition negatively predicted warmth. Beyond the SCM, status and property threat both were robust antecedents for both competence and warmth for all groups. Besides competition, cultural distance also negatively predicted warmth for all groups. The role of the other antecedents, as expected, varied from group to group. To examine relative impact, a network analysis demonstrated that status, competition, and property threat centrally influence many other variables in the networks. The SCM, along with antecedents from other models, describes Russian ethnic-group images. This research contributes: (1) a comparison of established approaches to ethnic stereotypes (from acculturation and intergroup relations) showing the stability of the main SCM predictions; (2) network structures of the multivariate dependencies of the considered variables; (3) systematically cataloged images of ethnic groups in Russia for further comparisons, illuminating the Russian historical, societal, and interethnic context.
It has long been noticed that older people tend to be more religious than younger people. However, it is still disputable whether this fact should be attributed to people generally becoming more religious with age per se (age effect), or to the process of secularization, wherein earlier cohorts (to which the now older people belong) used to be more religious than those that appeared later, younger cohorts (cohort effect). We try to distinguish between these two effects using a multifactor model applied to World Values Survey data (1981–2014) and find that at least in the developed countries the age effect strongly prevails over the cohort effect. This finding has important implications, e.g., that population aging in OECD countries can possibly slow down the transition from religious to secular values. This effect is already visible in some countries, such as Japan.
In 1976 Richard Dawkins coined the term meme as a way to metaphorically project bio-evolutionary principles upon the processes of cultural and social development. The works of Dawkins and of some other enthusiasts had contributed to a rise in popularity of the concept of memetics ("study of memes"), but the interest to this new field started to decline quite soon. The conceptual apparatus of memetics was based on a number of quasi-biological terms, but the emerging discipline failed to go beyond those initial metaphors. This article is an attempt to rebuild the toolkit of memetics with the help of the more fundamental concepts taken from semiotics and to propose a synthetic conceptual framework connecting genetics and memetics, in which semiotics is used as the transdisciplinary methodology for both disciplines. The concept of sign is used as the meta-lingual equivalent for both the concepts of gene and meme. In the most general understanding, sign is a thing which stands for another thing. In genetics this translates into gene that is a section of DNA that stands for the algorithm of how a particular biomolecule is built. In memetics, the similar principle works in meme that is a thing that stands for the rules of how a particular cultural practice is performed.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.