Профессиональная этика как объект социологического исследования: между социологией морали и социологией профессий
The article presents the results of the analysis of classical and contemporary theories
and approaches to the study of professional ethics. In the first part of the article, based on the ideas of
H. Spencer, E. Durkheim and T. Parsons, the authors question the general sociological interpretation of the
nature of professional ethics mainly in its functionalist perspective. According to Spencer, professions play
an important moral role in social development such as improving the quality of life. Durkheim believed
that professional ethics should contribute to solidarity and prevent labor and commercial conflicts, which
can be facilitated by the restoration of guilds in a renewed form — as institutionalized moral regulators.
The professions and professionalism are a set of institutional practices that have adapted and changed in face of societal and economic transformations. The managerialist responses to current economic and financial crises coupled with developments in science and technology have all impacted on work organizations and labour markets - regionally and globally – and challenged our understanding of the professions and professionalism. The professions continue to capture our interest, for they have adapted and extended beyond their traditional base predominantly within the welfare state to also apply to new occupations and careers, including information and communication technologies, media and culture and human services. The concept of professionalism has also been subjected to a revision with the emphasis now more on responsibility and less on the traditional assumption of autonomy. This newer approach has particular relevance to the issues of governance and regulation and for our understanding of contemporary developments in organizational leadership and management. These changes are happening globally, raising questions around global and local knowledge and power. These developments are shaping the research on the new as well as established professions and led to a rethinking of our understanding of the professions and professionalism. This Companion aims to provide a prestigious reference work that will offer students, researchers and educators alike an introduction to current scholarship on the sociology of the professions including their relations to work organization and management. The Routledge Companion to the Professions and Professionalism will provide the state-of-the-art compilation that will map out the current developments and debates globally. This will be underpinned with a comparative history of the evolution in the theory and practice of the professions and professionalism and provide the basis for conclusions as to the main elements for the future research agenda
In this study we compare ethical values of Russian law students and professional lawyers. We focus on the problem of choosing between personal benefits and professional responsibility, as well as on the transformations of ethical values between university and the bar. In two studies using a single methodology we have surveyed 282 law student in three Russian universities and 372 lawyer from 9 regions of Russia. At the moment this is the only study in Russia, which allows us to compare the views of law students and professional lawyers, and find out at what point the idea about dominance of personal benefit over professional responsibility established. We conclude that the reasons for the differences in professional ethics are rooted in the system of legal education.
This article analyzes the professional culture of the Russian technical specialists - engineers, programmers, and so on. The article is based on data from a series of semi-formalized interviews with Russian technical experts. The theoretical frame of this study includes articles by Soviet and Russian sociologists, in which researchers studied the identity of Soviet scientific and technical intelligentsia. Another important source is a publication of G. Kunda, P. Meiksins on engineering culture and professionalization of engineers. A separate topic of the article is the definition of a professional culture that includes values, norms of behavior, Slang, common social practices and professional ethics. The Professional culture of Russian technical experts contains a number of elements. First, rationality and system thinking is the result of technical education. Secondly, masculinity is part of the professional culture of the technicians. Thirdly, the technicians are working hard and well. Fourth, the creative involvement is important for technicians in their work. Also, the organizational context affects the culture of professional technicians.
The Routledge Companion to the Professions and Professionalism is a state-of-the-art reference work which maps out the current developments and debates around the sociology of the professions, and how they relate to management and organizations. Supported by an international contributor team specializing in the disciplines of organizational studies and sociology, the collection provides extensive coverage of this field of research. It brings together the core concepts and issues, and has chapters on all the key aspects of professions in both the public and private sectors, including issues of governance and regulation. The volume closes with a set of international case studies which provide valuable practical insights into the subject.
The paper delivers a piece of research on the Moscow Bar Association laying a particular stress on the problem of the social and religious profile as well as the educational trajectories of its members. The paper employs the data from a vast array of primary sources, including the personal records of Moscow University students and a number of pre-revolutionary statistical surveys.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.