The article presents the results of the comparative study of the neighboring countries’ images in the perception of the Russian student youth. In the first part of the article, the authors emphasize the importance of public opinion as one of the key social institutions in the contemporary society though it is often manipulated by state and political organizations to ensure the public support of ambiguous decisions. There are two basic mechanisms to form social representations including the images of different countries in public opinion: spontaneous and purposeful (when officials and media use special techniques to create an image of either a dangerous enemy or the best geopolitical friend). Today in Russia the former seems to dominate for except the key geopolitical powers other countries seem to attract the state attention rather sporadically, which is supported by general political indifference, wide dissemination of information technologies, and freedom of travels all over the world, etc. The second part of the article focuses on the methodological consequences of thus developing images in the Russian public opinion. The authors explain the thematic structure and techniques of the questionnaire developed for the study of the images of China, Kazakhstan and Serbia in the Russian student youth’ worldview, which were applied in the sociological survey of 2010-2011 in the project supported by the Russian Foundation for Humanities, and then again in 2016 for the comparative analysis. The last part of the article presents the results of these surveys in the comparative perspective and focuses on a few indicators to reconstruct the persistent stereotypic elements of the neighboring countries’ images in the student youth worldview though there are some changes that are difficult to interpret.
In the contemporary highly differentiated society, culture and the symbolic processes within it are becoming increasingly important. The strengthening of symbolic mechanisms effect is obvious in many social phenomena, in particular in the transition to adulthood. The process of growing up and becoming an adult, as well as the image of adulthood itself, are transforming, which demands that social researchers Павленко Е.С. Взросление как процесс формирования идентичности: возможности анализа... seek for new conceptual resources for understanding the new nuances of the transition to adulthood in the contemporary society. Cultural psychology has developed the categorical apparatus that is quite sensitive to the symbolic processes within the personality development in the course of transition to adulthood. Cultural psychologists believe that every life trajectory as a process of personal identity development should be studied as determined by narratives and narration. However, despite the claim and intention to develop an approach that would take into account social factors (such as community influence, role of collective practices, and dominant social representations of adulthood) in fact, cultural psychologists prefer to conceptualize the nowadays social reality as reduced to the political and ideological discourses. Thus, cultural sociology can provide theoretical means for analyzing narratives of transition to adulthood as mainly collective processes, therefore discovering the symbolic mechanisms of transition to adulthood through life stories. With cultural sociology as a conceptual background for the development of appropriate tools for youth studies in sociology, there is a quite new research agenda, which consists of discovering genres and categorical repertoire of becoming an adult in narratives of the younger people. This can lead to the sociological reconstruction of categories that create the meaningful space of coming of age, from which young people draw resources to create meaningful narratives about their life trajectories in the past and future.
The article contains the results of a study analyzing the perception of the contemporary Russian film production in the most active cinema audience - young people. National cinema is considered as one of the important tools for the building of national identity. The success of the national cinema is associated with how spectators perceive and evaluate its quality, whether they are ready to perceive it as an authentic, different from the products of other countries. The perception of Russian national films is mainly considered as a spectators’ viewpoints on their quality - the most "significant" film elements and their subjective opinion.
The research is carried out in a qualitative design and is based on an analysis of the results collected during the field stage, as well as secondary data from focus groups and open questions from the database of the company which specialized in film research.
The research results showed that the image of Russian national film production in the opinion of the youth cinema audience is often negative. The key reasons of negative attitude include regular "failures" of Russian films, unstable films quality; negative image of national film production which was created and supported especially by popular video bloggers; lack of prestige of viewing Russian films in cinema (based on unwillingness of self-identity with a "typical" spectator of local cinema); wrong associasion of the success of several Russian films with a Hollywood producers participation; the negative image of the state cinematography support system.
We also found that when the spectator is assessing the quality of national films, the "technical" characteristics (for example, image quality, special effects, etc.) are not so important as "content" (plot, originality, originality from foreign films). The youth audience is more demanding to the local films - to get a positive assessment, the Russian film should be perceived as original and authentic, while Western pictures, on the contrary, are often perceived as predictable and stereotyped, but more attractive.
The article is devoted to the problem of a radical change in the resultant activity product of Russian universities over the past 30-35 years.
The authors believe that this change was caused by: a) the destruction of the Soviet system of higher education; b) the transfer of this system to Western models of the organization of its activities; c) the unification of diverse universities; d) the transfer of universities to a two-level system of education (bachelor-master); e) giving universities the right to form educational programs and earn money for their implementation, accepting applicants with a low level of training. It is these processes that have led to a significant increase in the number of domestic universities and students studying in them, whose training is carried out independently of the objective social need for various types of qualified personnel.
The university has ceased to be the final link in the system of professional training of personnel - activities where either the state or employing organizations acted as the customer for the final product. In fact, he became an organization providing educational services to the student and his parents (in fact, to the household). The higher education system in this form not only does not fulfill its social functions, but is wasteful and creates the potential for conflict due to the excess of formal holders of higher education for whom there is no place in the real economy.
The authors connect the development of the domestic higher education system with the allocation and differentiation into groups of a relatively small number of universities, the number of which will be correlated with the genre of the upcoming activities of graduates (research in the field of academic science, design and technological, design, educational and others), as well as - with reasonable forecasts of the needs of employers in various spheres of society.
In the public discourse, cinematic views on the analysis of movies traditionally prevail. The author suggests another approach: in the course of the experiment aimed to reveal the audience's perception of the film „Welcome to Zombieland the author discovers an atypical interpretation of this horror film as an instrument of educating the young generation, those features of the ideological message of the film that can transform any genre into, it would seem, its complete opposite - a collection of contemporary society norms and behavior patterns. The main conclusion of the article is that the perception of a film is a complex social action which always goes beyond any cinematic interpretations.
In recent years, the increase in general interest in methods for measuring cognitive load and subjectively perceived mental effort when solving various tasks and in the interpersonal communication was accompanied by an increase in the specific interest of social researchers in the multimodal assessment of the cognitive load of interviewers and respondents based on objective and subjective indicators, including paradata and webcam data, in order to control this load’s impact on the quality of survey data. The authors argue that the possibilities of relatively new approaches to measuring cognitive load with neurophysiological methods (such as the use of wearable devices for oculography — eye tracking and pupillometry — which do not disrupt the natural course of respondents and interviewers activity) are still underestimated, although they allow an accurate time linkage of measured parameters’ dynamics (primarily the size of the pupil) to the question format, mode and phase of survey completion, external influences localized in time, etc. As a rule, quantitative studies of surveys’ cognitive load and its possible impact on the quality of survey data focus on computer-assisted (CAPI) or paper-based (PAPI) interviewing, while the specificity of the cognitive load in the self-completed computerized (CASI) and paper (P&PSI) surveys was not studied. The article presents the results of the methodological experiment based on a modified version of the multimodal approach to the comparative assessment of the cognitive load of interviewers working with paper and computerized questionnaire. We expanded the range of methods for assessing cognitive load by using a wearable oculographic device (eye tracker) to measure the dynamics of pupil size when answering different survey questions. The results of the experiment confirmed the hypothesis about the approximate equivalence of the two modes of survey completion in terms of their cognitive load for younger respondents with a high level of functional computer literacy, and allowed an initial assessment of the technical and metrological capabilities and limitations of the use of pupil dynamics’ indicators, measured with a wearable oculographic device, to study the respondents’ cognitive load.
The concepts of social changes coined by classical sociology may be incorporated as the basis for the elaboration of social prognostication models which, in turn, may suitable for fashion forecast applied technologies development. In the framework of the given paper fashion is described as the phenomenon of collective behaviour. The principles of long-term fashion trends forecast are shown to be in line with the concepts of cyclic development.
The difficult economic conditions that characterized the economic sphere of the country's life for the last few years have once again actualized the problems of assessing the well-being of the population, not only objective, but also subjective. This article is devoted to defining the boundaries and revealing the characteristics of subjective well-being and ill-being in modern Russian society. On the basis of the all-Russian representative sociological survey conducted in 2018 by the Institute of Sociology of the FCTAS RAS, by cluster analysis zones of subjective well-being and subjective ill-being are identified, as well as an intermediate zone. It is shown that the zone of subjective well-being is smaller today than the zone of subjective ill-being; its representatives are characterized by high assessments of all aspects of their lives, including those not related to income and consumption, while subjective ill-being is reflected in a pronounced dissatisfaction with material situation and leisure and holiday opportunities, as well as with satisfactory assessments of other aspects of life. The zone of subjective ill-being is formed not only and even not so much by low incomes, but due to the problems that its representatives face in their daily lives and which they are not able to solve on their own. Differences in the situation of Russians from the two polar zones lead to a differentiation of their requests for social policy, which, however, is reflected mostly not in the divergence of their priorities in this respect, but in the intensity of the request. The key areas in which the entire population expects assistance from the state today is the provision of fair wages and the establishment of the health care system. The specifics of the situation of the selected groups indicates that without resolving these problems, the zone of subjective ill-fortune is unlikely to decline even in the context of rising population incomes. As far as their localization is concerned, the zone of ill-being is shifted to the rural areas, the older populations and the manual labor, while the zone of well-being is localized today in the young urban "middle class".