Лингвистическая дискриминация и лингвистическая апроприации как примеры феномена двойственного сознания в США
Despite the abolishment of discriminatory laws and practices in the United States and the subsequent social and legal measures, racism continues to be one of the most acute problems of American society. Modern racism is expressed in new specific forms, often veiled and difficult to distinguish (covert, subtle racism), which include excessive politeness or the specific use of euphemisms. As a means of expressing basic ideological positions, language also serves as a powerful tool to influence public consciousness. The article reveals the ways to reproduce and enforce racial ideology through language. The opposition of social constructs «whiteness» and «blackness» is directly reflected in linguistic phenomena. For example, in the phenomenon of political correctness, which has become an indispensable part of the language practice in Western society. The author also reveals the content of colorblind ideology. In contrast to the policies of multiculturalism, the concept of colorblindness does not recognize any differences between racial and ethnic groups. However, in American discourse, this ideology is often associated with covert racism, since it leads to the silencing of existing racial problems and makes any mention of races and racism a taboo subject. It is suggested that American English is ideologically linked to the categories of race in the minds of its speakers. Using the example of African-American culture and African American English (AAE), the author conducts a sociolinguistic analysis of such phenomena as «linguistic appropriation» and «linguistic discrimination». Diametrically opposed problems characterize the American reality: on the one hand, the problem of preserving the linguistic and cultural identity of ethnic minorities, on the other hand, their integration into American society. Drawing on the concept of “double consciousness” by W.E.B. Dubois, the author argues that this dualism, as one of the most important consequences of slavery and segregation, characterizes both African Americans and European Americans.