Онтологии тела и медицинской практики
The aim of this article is to describe actors’ sense of justice that they intuitively embody in everyday life situations. To make everyday meanings of justice explicit we focus on an analysis of a very particular type of situation denunciations/justifications that appeared in everyday disputes in late soviet Russia.
In this paper we consider the possible worlds ontology as an instrument of analysis and clarification of some traditional notions of philosophy, logic and semantics. How many facets does the concept of possible world have? What do these facets represent? Our aim is to divide two ways in which possible worlds can enter into the complex network of assertion, denotation and interpretation. The first way we call the “point of reference”; the second is to be the “context of use”. To let possible worlds play both roles is to get a more adequate and flexible analytical tool which can bring us closer to the solution of many perplexed problems of modern logic.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.