Микропереписи населения России: прошлое, настоящее и будущее
The paper traces the history of the three population microcensuses held in Russia in 1985, 1994 and 2015, highlighting their methodological, technological and perational aspects, as well the questionnaire’s design. Given that the microcensuses provide more data in terms of new topics than conventional decennial population and housing censuses, this article focuses on the main research findings based on microcensus data. A closer look is taken at the 2015 population microcensus, as it has peculiarities in terms of sample size and design, as well as at the content of the census questionnaires. Deviations of the regional-territorial structure of the sample from the permanent population of Russia are revealed.It is shown that the representativeness of the data for the whole country is distorted, and the socio-demographic and geographical characteristics of the population are also biased due to the considerable variability of the sample size by regions of Russia. A comparison of the size and structure of the population according to the 2015 microcensus with data from vital statistics and population censuses, together with an estimate of age heaping, indicates serious problems with the data quality of the microcensus and the presence of typical errors common to conventional population censuses. Attention is focused on a shifting of the age structure of the population to older ages according to the 2015 microcensus, which could affect figures on education, economic activity, morbidity, disability, the demographic composition of households and other variables closely related with age.