Кто популярен в школе: умные, красивые или независимые?
Sixty-two semi-structured interviews with students of grades 9–11 in 15 schools and a survey of 2,376 ninth-graders from 55 schools were used to identify Russian teenagers’ perceptions of popularity and assess gender differences in the factors of popularity. It transpires that 40–50% of school students reject the very notion of “popular” as inequality-inducing. Such attitudes are probably in coherence with collectivistic values that are prevalent in Russian society as opposed to individualistic ones. Students perceived as popular by their peers are characterized as exhibiting prosocial behavior. “The life and soul of the party” was the most frequent characteristic of popular teenagers used in students’ descriptions; “attractive”, “very smart” and “acknowledges no authority” were mentioned slightly less often. Girls are more likely to be classified as popular for their good-looking appearance and sense of style, while boys are revered for sports achievements, arguments with teachers, independence and ability to stand up for themselves. Intellect and sociability are regarded as equally strong factors of popularity for both boys and girls. High status in a class is associated with social approval and support, academic achievements and prosocial behavior. Russian school students differ from their Western peers in their notion and perceptions of popularity.
In this study, the authors pinpoint the similarities and differences between students at a Russian university and a Swedish university regarding the students’ value systems. What similarities and what differences are there between male Swedish students and male Russian students, and what similarities and what differences are there between the female students in the two countries? The authors’ interest was directed towards the gender differences between the two countries. A method employing three phases was developed for analyses of the value systems in the two countries. Students, who, as a category, often challenge existing value systems, were chosen as informants. Student samples from each country, varying in number from 63 to 100 informants, provided data in the three sub-studies. The results indicated that similar national concepts, when translated into English, exposed significant differences in their connotations, a phenomenon which is discussed in relation to implications for intercultural communication. In particular, the concepts of democracy and gender equality are highlighted. Differences and similarities related to gender and nationality constitute the bulk of the discussion. A major finding was that concepts describing close interpersonal relations, such as friendship and love, were cross-nationally rated higher than values more distant from the individual’s private world, such as democracy and equal rights.
In the article on the basis of the psycholinguistic experimental data obtained in 2009-2010 from Russian and Swedish students (the project on Swedish Institute grant) we consider internal features of several complex values (“Harmony”, “Freedom”, “Democracy”, “Tolerance” and “Patriotism”) and analyze their external systemic organization, taking into account both specificity of the two cultures and gender specifics. We argue that value concepts are hierarchically organized, forming different generalization levels from the simple to the more complex ones with intricate overlapping among different complex values within the system.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.