Regional population structures at a glance
Population ageing is a major demographic challenge for humanity. Since population structures evolve slowly and predictably, the demographic, economic, environmental, and social problems of ageing have been anticipated and discussed for many decades.1 Yet the focus of these discussions has always been the elderly population, with elderly people often defined as those older than a threshold—eg, 65 years or age at retirement—or with a certain number of estimated remaining years of life.2 Such a focus is quite reasonable and understandable but not entirely correct.
The software digital oceanography atlas is described in this paper. This product consists of a set of oceanographic data calculated using international hydrology sources (GDEM and WOA) and a software for the data set visualization, extracting and access. The atlas is a very useful tool for express-estimations of limit parameters of internal gravity waves in any area in the World Ocean and also for preprocessing of input data for numerical models. Description of user interface, existing functionality and main working modes of the software are presented.
This paper offers an original way of improving the interpretation of the results of designing a distribution network via a set of various visualization techniques. First, using clustering algorithms allows us to automatically sort through a indeterminate number of warehouses and offer the recommended number of warehouses (clusters) depending on some incoming parameters. Visualization of the results of the algorithm can be illustrated on a geographical map as a model of distribution network. Second, using interpolation algorithms allows us to visualize the problem areas of a region in a model of previously designed network. Such visualizations provide a deep understanding of the properties of a distribution network.
Developed countries are facing an urgent problem of population aging. How can we overcome social and economic consequences of aging processes?
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.