Preferred Interpersonal Distances: A Global Comparison
Human spatial behavior has been the focus of hundreds of previous research studies. However, the
conclusions and generalizability of previous studies on interpersonal distance preferences were limited
by some important methodological and sampling issues. The objective of the present study was to
compare preferred interpersonal distances across the world and to overcome the problems observed
in previous studies. We present an extensive analysis of interpersonal distances over a large data set
(N = 8,943 participants from 42 countries). We attempted to relate the preferred social, personal, and
intimate distances observed in each country to a set of individual characteristics of the participants, and
some attributes of their cultures. Our study indicates that individual characteristics (age and gender)
influence interpersonal space preferences and that some variation in results can be explained by
temperature in a given region. We also present objective values of preferred interpersonal distances
in different regions, which might be used as a reference data point in future studies.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.
The author refl ects upon the book The Sources of cultural-historical psychology: philosophical-humanitarian context by V. Zinchenko, B. Pruzhinin, T. Schedrina. Moscow, 2010.
The main focus of this paper is the relation between the realisation of the right of the child to express his/her views and democracy in Russia. With this in view, I will study the interconnection between the right to express the views and the right to participate. Further, I will give an overview of the specifics of democracy in Russia, how they influence political participation, and what could be done to prevent the further infantilisation of citizens in Russia. Finally, I will explore traditional perceptions with regard to children’s participation in Russia and the legal framework and practice of the implementation of the child’s right to social and political participation.
The article deals with current approaches to research on social-economic impacts of cultural events. A systematic approach is proposed to analysis of services provided within cultural events in behalf of different target groups — stakeholders.