Grid and Item-by-Item Formats in PC and Mobile Web Surveys
While grids or matrix questions are a widely used format in PC web surveys, there is no agreement on the format in mobile web surveys. We conducted a two-wave experiment in an opt in panel in Russia, varying the question format (grid format and item-by-item format) and device respondents used for survey completion (smartphone and PC). The 1,678 respondents completed the survey in the assigned conditions in the first wave and 1,079 in the second wave. Overall, we found somewhat higher measurement error in the grid format in both mobile and PC web conditions. We found almost no significant effect of the question format on test–retest correlations between the latent scores in two waves and no differences in breakoff rates between the question formats. The multigroup comparison showed some measurement equivalence between the question formats. However, the difference varied depending on the length of a scale with a longer scale producing some differences in the measurement equivalence between the conditions. The levels of straightlining were higher in the grid than in the item-by-item format. In addition, concurrent validity was lower in the grid format in both PC and mobile web conditions. Finally, subjective indicators of respondent burden showed that the grid format increased reported technical difficulties and decreased subjective evaluation of the survey.
The considered model of the failure rate of CMOS VHSIC design proposed in the article Piskun G.A., Alekseev V.F., "Improvement of mathematical models calculating of CMOS VLSIC taking into account features of impact of electrostatic discharge", published in the first issue of the journal "Technologies of electromagnetic compatibility" for the year 2016. It is shown that the authors claim that this model "...will more accurately assess the reliability of CMOS VHSIC design" is fundamentally flawed and its application will inevitably lead to inadequate results. Alternatively, the proposed model of the failure rate of CMOS VHSIC design, which also allows to take into account the views of ESD, but based on the use of resistance characteristics of CMOS VHSIC to the effects of ESD.
The article considers the questions assessing the reliability of mechanical components used in the electronic equipment in the early stages of design. The calculations of failure rates springs shock absorbers according to various methods. It is shown that the use of models failure rates of mechanical elements, taking into account the peculiarities of their structural and technological performance, not only allows us to solve the problem of calculating, but also to ensure the required level of reliability and mechanical components, and containing electronic equipment.
The monograph presents results by professor Dr. A. Shalumov’s Research School of Modeling, Information Technology and Automated Systems (Russia). The program, ASONIKA, developed by the school is reviewed here regarding reliability and quality of devices for simulation of electronics and chips during harmonic and random vibration, single and multiple impacts, linear acceleration and acoustic noise, and steady-state and transient thermal effects. Calculations are done for thermal stress during changes in temperature and power in time. Calculations are done for number of cycles to fatigue failure under mechanical loads as well as under cyclic thermal effects. Simulation results for reliability analysis are taken into account. Models, software interface, and simulation examples are presented.
For engineers and scientists involved in design automation of electronics.
The basic influencing the factor defining its reliability are temperature influences at which speed of chemical reaction of materials a part REE increases. It is represented the equation which has been received by the Swedish chemist Svante Arreniusom from thermodynamic reasons
The monograph contents totaled the many years results of Scientific school «The Automated System for Ensuring of Reliability and Quality of Equipment - ASONIKA» National research University «Higher school of Economics» (scientific supervisor of the Scientific school - academician of RANS, doctor of technical sciences, professor YU. Kofanov) and long-term cooperation with the scientists of Kiev Institute of mathematical machines and systems problems of the Ukrainian National Sciences Academy (Deputy Director on science, doctor of technical sciences V.P. Strelnikov). The final structure of the monograph had been formed in the discussion of modern problems of reliability aerospace electronic equipment at the XVII International scientific-technical conference «Systemic problems of reliability, quality, mathematical modelling, information and infocommunication technologies in innovation projects». This conference was dedicated to the 20th anniversary of the HSE. The book outlines the basics of probability-physical approach to the study and the assessment of the reliability of onboard aerospace equipment. Presents the methods of estimation of reliability parameters of electronic components, as according to reference data and test or operating results in the presence or absence of failures. Developed the methods of calculation of reliability parameters of mechanical elements of aerospace equipment as well as research methods reliability of redundant and non-redundant, non-renewable and renewable systems on the basis of adequate two-parameter distributions of diffusion. Established the theory of planning reliability test with lightweight, durable, including accelerated testing with new methods of processing the testing results and reliability assessment. We propose new methods of evaluation and prediction of the aerospace equipment reliability to measure the determining parameters. Developed methodology of the statistical characteristics evaluation of the degradation process for the study of single samples of aerospace equipment using information about its representative minobject (minibranch, mineralizatsiya). All problems of reliability, which is solved in this book (mathematical modeling, calculation and experimental evaluation of the reliability of systems) result in the identification of the time until failure (or to failure) distribution. It is proved that when assessing the reliability of onboard aerospace equipment, most accurate results diffusion DN-distribution. On the basis of the law of distribution can be carried out the evaluation of all the necessary parameters of aerospace equipment reliability (mathematical expectations developments, gamma-interest developments, the probability of non-failure operating time for the specified time, the residual resource and others). The book provides a large number of examples and problems, proving the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed methods. Material monograph mostly taught HSE in the various courses of lectures. The monograph is intended for a wide circle of specialists working in the field design, testing and operation of onboard aerospace equipment, as well as students and graduate students of the HSE in the execution of their coursework, independent scientific research, and the preparation of graduation theses and dissertations.
Maintenance of reliability of radio-electronic equipment taking into account thermal modes for various classes of electroradioproducts (ERP) within the limits of system ASONIKA is considered.
Enterprises of Russia’s radio industry engaged in development and production of electronic instrumentation (EI) for space vehicles (SV), face problems of insuring reliability, and, first of all, problems of failure-free operation. Failures during EI acceptance tests and accidents at SV operation are real evidence of mentioned problems. One of the reasons of such situation is application of out-of-date and inaccurate methods of estimating the reliability of SV EI at the design stage where developers embed the reliability that will be realized during production and supported at the operation stage.
On the other hand, use of the "lower" estimates of failure-free operation parameters can lead to decrease of SV EI competitiveness, as this way in order to enhance reliability, manufactures unreasonably use various additional ways that lead to deterioration of economic, mass-dimensional and other indices. Therefore, increase of accuracy of estimating the reliability of SV EI with long terms of active existence is pressing problem, in particular for EI wherein redundancy as well as reconfiguration is used to ensure reliability.
Statistical Models and Methods for Reliability and Survival Analysis is a volume of contributions by specialists in statistical theory and their applications that provide up-to-date developments in methods used in survival analysis, statistical goodness of fit, stochastic processes for system reliability among others. Many of them are related to the work of Professor M. Nikulin in statistics for thirty years. The contributors accepted this challenging project to gather various contributions with a wide broad of techniques and results, all of them in the topics of the past S2MRSA conference dedicated to M. Nikulin for his twentieth anniversary as a Professor in the Bordeaux Segalen University. The book is intended for researchers interested in statistical methodology and models useful in survival analysis, system reliability and statistical testing for censored and non censored data.
In this paper the comparative characteristics of the РС ASONIKA-K and PМ of reliability calculations are given.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.