Трансформация творческой занятости в современной России: на примере сотрудников негосударственных арт-центров Москвы
In 2000—2010, Moscow cultural environment was undergoing considerable changes related to the emergence of major non-governmental cultural institutions (Garage Museum of Contemporary Art, Vinzavod, Strelka Institute, et cet.). The paper is devoted to the labor practices of these institutions. In Great Britain and Western Europe, creative/cultural working conditions were properly studied: both qualitative and quantitative research showed that the institutions were characterized by high risk levels, precarious employment, non-formal labor practices and work arrangement, and gender, ethnic and social inequality. As to Russia and the post-Soviet space, the researchers, with few exceptions, did not pay enough attention to this topic. The paper based on interviews with Moscow art centers’ employees and workplace observations describes working conditions and professional identities of the Russian creative workers.
There are a lot of changes in all spheres of life in China, including art, in the end of 1970. This leads to appearance of new directions in art, also brings the fundamental changes in principles of art of China. Wang Guangyi is considered to be the founder of the Political Pop art. Political Pop art is one of the leading directions in contemporary Chinese art in the beginning of the 90th. This article is devoted to the oeuvre of Wang Guangyi and the process of appearance of Political Pop art, its prerequisites, conceptions and stylistic characteristics.
What is it to be a work of art? Renowned author and critic Arthur C. Danto addresses this fundamental, complex question. Part philosophical monograph and part memoiristic meditation, What Art Is challenges the popular interpretation that art is an indefinable concept, instead bringing to light the properties that constitute universal meaning. Danto argues that despite varied approaches, a work of art is always defined by two essential criteria: meaning and embodiment, as well as one additional criterion contributed by the viewer: interpretation. Danto crafts his argument in an accessible manner that engages with both philosophy and art across genres and eras, beginning with Plato’s definition of art in The Republic, and continuing through the progress of art as a series of discoveries, including such innovations as perspective, chiaroscuro, and physiognomy. Danto concludes with a fascinating discussion of Andy Warhol’s famous shipping cartons, which are visually indistinguishable from the everyday objects they represent.
The author dwells upon the evolution of the creative work of the artist I. Sacharow-Ross in the field of action art - from early performances to full-blown rituals «yagya», derived from the practice in Vedic times. The author gives descriptions of performances, actions and ritual «yagya». It is stressed in the article that the artist doesn´t limit himself to the possibilities of the only one kind of art. In the spirit of primeval syncretism he uses visual images, sounds, odors, he designs processual elements into rituals. Thus he takes the part of the creator of such a painting of the world, which, by the expression of A. Borowsky, «is sprouted of innate-natural».
The article considers integration processes in various art forms and media sphere. The development of different communication systems demonstrates that the syncretic unity is destroyed by the inner urge to release the individual components in separate systems. On the other hand, in the isolated structures arises a desire for syncretism, which is often accompanied by the development of its destructive tendencies. The resulting synergetic effect leads to startling outcomes which, obviously, should be related to the most promising areas of contemporary art and media space.
The second publication of the international art center Kunsthaus Bregenz Arena (Austria).
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.