Непоследовательная политика в области контроля рождаемости и динамика уровня абортов в России
The article analyzes the changes in the Russian Federation's state policy in the field of birth control in the post-Soviet period and their impact on the access to abortion and its incidence in the country.
Fertility transition in Russia had been completed up to the 1960s, but since then pregnancy termination remained playing a large role in birth control. Official statistics show the positive dynamics of main characteristics of reproductive health in the post-Soviet period. This development is often questioned. Based on the analysis of data from Rosstat, Russian Ministry of Health, and materials from sample surveys, mostly from 21 waves of "Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey - Higher School of Economics "(RLMS-HSE) we conclude that the official statistics of abortion are adequate. The article refutes the assumption of significant underreporting of abortions in Russia. Over the past few decades Russia has experienced contraceptive revolution, which led to a more humane way of birth control.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.