This paper defines the self-covariance property for the solutions of transferable utility cooperative games (TU-games) as a weakening of their covariance. Self-covariant solutions are positively homogenous and satisfy a “restricted” translation covariance so that feasible shifts are only the solution vectors themselves and their multipliers. A description of all non-empty, single-valued, efficient, anonymous, weakly and self-covariant solutions in the class of twoplayer TU-games is given. As demonstrated below, among them there exist just three solutions admitting consistent extensions in the Davis–Maschler sense. They are the equal share solution, the standard solution, and the constrained egalitarian solution for superadditive two-player TUgames. For the third solution mentioned, characterizations of some consistent extensions to the class of all TU-games are given.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.