Мигранты на рынке домашнего труда в России и Казахстане
Using the data of the purposive sampling (2008-2010 and 2013) undertaken by The Migration Research Center the author attempted to create a "portrait" (set of social, demographic and economic traits) of the female labor migrants from the CIS countries working as the domestic hired employees in Russia. The analysis showed that the domestic hired female labor migrants stand in a better position compared to other groups of the foreign migrants because they are provided with the place to live and higher wages or salaries. On the other hand, they stay under more difficult conditions characterized by informal labor position and domestic labor practices. Examining this population group we face a number of research topics: labor migration, female migration, individual migration, employment in the sphere of the services provision at home, especially its emotional and communicative aspects, informal employment.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.