Систематизация отечественных исследований и кросс-культурные перспективы изучения перфекционизма
The article deals with the range of perfectionism studies in Russia. The analysis of Russian publications on perfectionism draws up three major classes of research: foreign studies and their critique, adaptation of foreign questionnaires and the development of Russian instruments, the studies of perfectionism in association with other psychological phenomena and its influence on well-being. Results show that Russian social changes influence the directions in perfectionism research. On the one hand, the changes embrace higher social individuation, status and prestige in personal goal-setting, mass mediated external well-being standards and orientation toward achievement and success on a global scale. On the other hand, research dynamics underlines perfectionism ambivalence and methodological gaps in its investigations. Additionally, the article discusses cultural relevance of perfectionism, the rationale for cross-cultural approach and shortage of cross-cultural perfectionism studies regarding Russia. The results of present paper might be significant in terms of specifying perfectionism, developing multi-dimensional methodologies, drawing conclusions in cross-cultural research with Russian samples and identifying motivational factors in the context of globalized education.
This article advances the idea of cultural and individual values being connected to each other not directly, but through the consciousness and activity, which presupposes the integral unity of cultural-historic methodological approach and the activity methodological approach in psychological researches. Activity effects mainly on forming of the consciousness and personality: it underlies them. In the cultural-historic approach such basis, in a way, a unit of analysis of consciousness and personality, is a value-oriented experience. The necessity of integration of the activity approach with cultural-historic approach lies in the integral ontology of psyche, behavior, activity, experience, sense, consciousness, personality, culture and its values.
The main focus of this paper is the relation between the realisation of the right of the child to express his/her views and democracy in Russia. With this in view, I will study the interconnection between the right to express the views and the right to participate. Further, I will give an overview of the specifics of democracy in Russia, how they influence political participation, and what could be done to prevent the further infantilisation of citizens in Russia. Finally, I will explore traditional perceptions with regard to children’s participation in Russia and the legal framework and practice of the implementation of the child’s right to social and political participation.
The article deals with current approaches to research on social-economic impacts of cultural events. A systematic approach is proposed to analysis of services provided within cultural events in behalf of different target groups — stakeholders.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.