A computer program designed to determine the degree human predisposition to drug addiction. The program is based neural network trained on the results of sociological surveys. Error of neural network model was less than 1%. With the help of neural network model evaluated the importance of factors that can influence the predisposition to drug addiction. The most important factors were: the level of education, having friends who use drugs, temperament type, number of children in the family, financial situation. Neural network model allows to evaluate the effect of varying the parameters characterizing the man and his predisposition to addiction and select the optimal combination of these parameters for each individual and thus receive individual recommendations for reducing drug addiction.
This paper deals with the perception of English language teaching profession both at school and at university by university students who specialize in languages. Survey results demonstrate that teaching profession can be characterized as unattractive because of low pay and high workload. Internal motivation such as personal qualities and preferences is the only incentive to choose English language teaching profession. These findings enable the authors to give recommendations how to improve the attractiveness of English-language teacher’s work.
The paper analyzes the basic characteristics of the discourse of innovation in the 21st century . The author reveals the systemic and functional changes due to the transformation of the discourse of classical models of the innovation economy and production. New integrating elements of nonclassical models become active audience and professional communicants, and the Internet. Theoretical positions, presented in the article, allow to form the theoretical and practical concepts and strategies in the field of innovation, which are particularly important for the Russian national innovation system.
Population health is one of the most significant human resources which largely determine the progress in the competition, productivity and agricultural economic activity. It has a huge social and economic growth effect in general. It also plays a huge role in village areas which come second in terms of importance after all cities and towns. Over the last decade, there has been a growing research interest in career strategies in medicine among young medical professionals. However, there is little empirical research on young rural doctors’ career strategies in Russia. This study is in line with medical professions studies and rural studies. Young physicians have different career orientations towards learning and practicing medicine. Some of them need more support for their professional development. The study employs the biographical interview method, which allows us to consider the formation of career strategies of young doctors from various conceptual perspectives, such as everyday practices, interactions in work environment, and communication with rural community. The main analytical method was a thematic analysis of young doctors’ narrative stories. Based on those interviews, the article aims to find answers to the following questions: «How to preserve professionalism while working in rural areas?» and «How to devise a career strategy when you enter a rural community?» The empirical base of the study are 40 interviews with young rural doctors from the Leningrad region. When analysing the narrative interviews, two main strategies in forming a young doctor’s career have been found: rural career (focused on life and work in the countryside) and moving strategy (focused on moving from rural to urban areas). Each career type has its own way of positioning oneself as a doctor in a rural community. The received data allows for investigating the career strategies of young doctors based on the thematic analysis of narrative interviews and it can be used to improve the process of young doctors’ integration into working in villages. Our analysis takes account of the strategies young rural doctors use to make a career, their feeling of belonging or non-belonging to the rural community, and different views on rurality. The topics of discussion deal with career choice, working experiences and career opportunities. The study contributes to rural professions studies and medical studies.
Pregnancy is a special period of a woman’s development, characterized by the acceptance of the new social role and changes in behavioral patterns based on parental attitudes, representations of motherhood, and social expectations. This study aims to analyze age differences in the types of the psychological components of the gestational dominant (PСGD) and parental attitudes of women in different states (pregnant and non-pregnant). The principal assumption is that the age and the current state have a profound effect and determine different types of PСGD. Additionally, the associations between types of PCGD and parental attitudes are analyzed. The research sample consists of 436 women aged from 18 to 40, divided into two sub-groups: pregnant women (203) and non-pregnant women with a child not older than five (233). Methods: «Parental Attitude Research Instrument» (РARI) and questionnaire «Types of the psychological component of the gestational dominant»; ANOVA, t-test, correlation, and cluster analysis were used as statistical methods. The main conclusion is that differences in parental attitudes and types of PCGD mainly depend on the women’s age. Younger women (not older than 21) have more negative emotions linked with the intra-family relations (relationship with their husband) and the child’s upbringing. In addition, younger women perceive depression as the central psychological component of the gestational dominant. Regardless of the age, emotional characteristics of the family relations correlate with more adaptive types of PCGD, while non-adaptive types of PСGD are mainly associated with the emotions concerning the interaction with the child.
In the conditions of the world wide web, modern information and communication technologies, professional activity has penetrated into the non-working hours and the private life of an employee. The modern trend of protection of the «Right to disconnect» in foreign labor legislation attracts attention of modern researchers. The right gives an employee an opportunity not to respond to messages and calls related to work during his non-working hours. Similar rules exist in France and Germany and are being formed in the United States. However, the modern «Risk Society» leaves its imprint, and not every person has the opportunity to use his «Right to disconnect», being forced to agree to any conditions, including precariat. Concerning is the fact that not every employee is ready to refuse from the «Connection», because he wants to continue working during non-working hours for various reasons. Motivation depends on what sense an individual implies in his actions. In modern Russia, the «right to disconnect» is analyzed in the context of life purpose strategies. Employment is characterized today as atypical, premature, unstable. In these conditions, a person’s intention of self-improvement, laid down by the era of modernity, during «the turbulent times» turns into constant movement, a state «in between». The research shows that for a transitional individual and a follower of the morality of success, the «right to disconnect» does not fit into their life strategies. A «barbarian», for whom work is an obligation, dreams of «the right to disconnect». For creative individuals, «the right to disconnect» is a necessary condition for their creative being. The future of mankind depends on the ratio of «barbarians» and «creators»
The results of researching of differences in views on business ethics among different generations of Russians are presented. In research took part representatives of adult generation (33–72 years) and youth (19–28 years). On the basis of literature on this subject have been put forward the following hypotheses: first, for young people more important are informal relations, social communication in the view of young generation is the condition of business success, and thirdly, for the young woman leadership is more common phenomenon than for adults. By means of factor analysis it has been revealed that there are 5 factors which lie in the basis of views on business ethics in Russia. They are: «Business enterprise», «Illegibility in means», «Focusing on team work», «Neglect to business, focus on communication», «Straightforwardness in affairs. Significant intergenerational differences in views on business ethics of Russians» are determined. Significant distinctions between groups of young and adult respondents on factors «Business enterprise», «Orientation to team work», «Neglect to business, orientation in touch» and «Straightforwardness in affairs» were revealed.
The article deals with the problems of resocialization of adolescents in difficult life situations, who are studying in specialized open-type educational institutions. The method of semi-structured interview with biographical elements was used for collecting the empirical material. The research is based on 7 interviews with teenagers and 3 interviews with teachers. The article considers the process of communication between a troubled adolescent and socium. The experience of adolescents is individualized and presented in the form of a life story. Biographical analysis and the method of categorization are used as the main approach, the elements of analysis being speech codes, categories and meanings from narrative interviews placed in a special sociocultural dimension (close contact of the urban environment and the environment of the specialized institution). This strategy eminently represents the life path and difficulties faced by young people that helped them to form individual categories-characteristics of surrounding objects. The author’s aim is to analyze how everyday practices of communication of adolescents change during the period of training in the institution. The author considered in the article how the process of resocialization of «difficult» adolescents in the conditions of a city and a special institution is proceeding, what are the main barriers and what is the impact of stigma.
In recent years, negative personality traits have attracted research attention. One of the examples is the Dark Triad, which is a constellation of three personality traits: Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy. Some Dark Triad measures have been created. The article is devoted to the adaptation and validation of the Short Dark Triad (SD3) measure. We examined the structure, reliability, and validity of the items and scales in samples of 459 participants (69,5 % of them were female). Two versions of the questionnaire were offered: the full one (27 items) and the revised one (18 items). The structures of both versions correspond to the original SD3. The alpha reliabilities were 0,72 for Machiavellianism, 0,75 for narcissism, and 0,65 for psychopathy. The test-retest reliabilities were good for Machiavellianism and narcissism, and appropriate for psychopathy. To evaluate the convergent validity of SD3, it was compared with the Russian adaptation of HEXACO-60. The Dark Triad traits have negative relationships with Honesty-Humilityty, Emotionality, and Agreeableness. This study indicates that SD3 provides efficient, reliable, and valid measures of the personality traits included in the Dark Triad.
Public relations require adequate scientific reflection, and an integrated theoretical framework to form the paradigm of scientific knowledge in this field in Russia. The research results form the basic provisions of the scientific knowledge of PR.
Public relations require adequate scientific reflection, and an integrated theoretical framework to form the paradigm of scientific knowledge in this field in Russia. The research results form the basic provisions of the scientific knowledge of PR and demonstrate the scientific potential of the theme.
The article deals with the range of perfectionism studies in Russia. The analysis of Russian publications on perfectionism draws up three major classes of research: foreign studies and their critique, adaptation of foreign questionnaires and the development of Russian instruments, the studies of perfectionism in association with other psychological phenomena and its influence on well-being. Results show that Russian social changes influence the directions in perfectionism research. On the one hand, the changes embrace higher social individuation, status and prestige in personal goal-setting, mass mediated external well-being standards and orientation toward achievement and success on a global scale. On the other hand, research dynamics underlines perfectionism ambivalence and methodological gaps in its investigations. Additionally, the article discusses cultural relevance of perfectionism, the rationale for cross-cultural approach and shortage of cross-cultural perfectionism studies regarding Russia. The results of present paper might be significant in terms of specifying perfectionism, developing multi-dimensional methodologies, drawing conclusions in cross-cultural research with Russian samples and identifying motivational factors in the context of globalized education.
The problem of inter-generational distinctions in values is actual in modern Russia. Since the middle of the 80-90th years of the XX century the valuable gap between generations is observed. The aim of the work is to generalize the theoretical researches on a problem of existence/lack of inter-generational distinctions in values and to conduct the empirical research directed on identification of a valuable gap between generations. 380 people acted as respondents in this research: representatives of adult generation and youth of Russia. The hypothesis of existence of inter-generational distinctions in individual values of Russians was confirmed during the research. Values "Independence of thought", "Stimulation", "Universalism", and "Universalism: tolerance" prevail among youth. Among adults the values expressing interests of group prevail: "Tradition", "Benevolence: care" and valuable orientation "Modesty"