Population change in the regional centres and internal periphery of the regions in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus over the period of 1990-2000s
The paper looks into the dynamics of the population size of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus after the census of 1989. Regions and cities of these countries were the focus of the research (territorial units level NUTS-3). The analysis addresses the question to what degree the remoteness from the regional centre, i.e. the position in the core-periphery system, influences the dynamics of the population size of the territorial units of the given level. For the analytical purposes the distinction has been made between the regional centres including adjacent suburban areas and internal regional periphery comprising districts and cities. The main indicator employed was the distance between the periphery areas and regional centres. The results of the analysis show that in spite of the depopulation of all three countries and severe transformational crisis, there was a steady growth of the population size in the regional centres, while the periphery areas of the regions continued to lose the population. The mentioned differences are primarily determined by migration flows, since the fertility rates are below the replacement level in all the countries’ territories. Population tends to concentrate in the regional centres, which means urbanisation has not been completed yet. While similar patterns of population decline are observed in the periphery areas of Ukraine and Belarus, in Russia the depopulation rates are negatively influenced by the factor of remoteness of a periphery area from the regional centre. All three countries experienced rural population decline everywhere but suburban areas of the regional centres.
Article imperious pyramid 1920s characterized as «sustainable imbalance», including between the Central government and provincial. This is achieved by the fact that various centers of power by various functions and the separation of the functions served by a particular system of «checks and balances». The author shows that the development of local authorities in the two major trends: towards democratization, spontaneously ran from below, and to authoritarianism, organizational and supported from the top. But gradually more powerful trend toward authoritarianism suppressed the desire for democratization, which greatly contributed to the local authorities.
This article presents possible answers, and their respective probabilities, to the question, ‘What are the consequences of the present global crisis in the proximate future of the World System?’ It also attempts to describe the basic characteristics of the forthcoming ‘Epoch of New Coalitions’ and to forecast certain future conditions. Among the problems analyzed in this paper are the following: What does the weakening of the economic role of the USA as the World System centre mean? Will there be a leader in the future World System? Will the deficit of global governance and world fragmentation continue to worsen? How can national sovereignty be transformed?
This volume discusses post-socialist urban transport functioning and development in Russia, within the context of the country’s recent transition towards a market economy. Over the past twenty-five years, urban transport in Russia has undergone serious transformations, prompted by the transitioning economy. Yet, the lack of readily available statistical data has led to a gap in the inclusion of Russia in the body of international transport economics research. By including ten chapters of original, cutting-edge research by Russian transport scholars, this book will close that gap. Discussing topics such as the relationship between urban spatial structure and travel behavior in post-soviet cities, road safety, trends and reforms in urban public transport development, transport planning and modelling, and the role of institutions in post-soviet transportation management, this book provides a comprehensive survey of the current state of transportation in Russia. The book concludes with a forecast for future travel development in Russia and makes recommendations for future policy. This book will be of interest to researchers in transportation economics and policy as well as policy makers and those working in the field of urban and transport planning.
With 2019 marking three decades since the fall of the Berlin Wall (1989-2019) and the collapse of state-socialism in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), the team at the “Urban Morphosis Lab” research group decided to utilize this unique opportunity to reflect and discuss on the ways in which the processes and outcomes of post-socialist transition have impacted the built environment of the CEE cities. That thought led us to organise the inaugural International Conference on Cities and Change, with the focus being on topics related to restructuring of planning and design frameworks, infrastructure, architecture, and urban space in CEE context. After receiving more than 125 abstracts from across Europe, the conference brought together leading academics, researchers and practitioners in fifteen sessions, who discussed the major factors that guided this process, such as–the shift to neoliberal system of urban governance and planning; strategic and innovative urban development approaches and practices for adapting to socio-political change; democratization of planning and design practices; privatization and commodification of urban spaces; globalization and diversification of urban culture; and transformation of urban memory, heritage and identity. Through these insights and debates, the conference increased the diversity of geographic perspectives in research on urban transformation, brought forth the spatial dimensions of transitioning processes, and, finally, produced new empirical insights, theoretical concepts and analytical methods for better understanding the complexity of the processes of urban change in wider international contexts.
This chapter discusses the features of the development of the Russian population and the results of population projections to 2025
Basing on the data of migrant population surplus/decline in Russian cities for the period 1991-2009 the attempt is made to evaluate the impact of the population size of a city as well as the city position in the system of central-peripheral relations on its migration balance. The author also explains the existing migration mobility pattern through hierarchy of cities within a region.
Many important demographic indices have changed dramatically in Russia during the last 10 years. The total fertility rate decreased from 2.20 to 1.28 between 1987 and 1996. The life expec-tancy for males fell by more than 7 years between 1987 and 1994, and for females by more than 3 years; after this, life expectancy began to rise again, but by 1997 the loss for males was re-stored by only 45% and for females by 60%. The natural increase of population became negative in 1992 and despite positive net migration the population of Russia began to decline. During 1992-1997 it decreased by 1.6 million persons. The population decline will continue and, accord-ing to varying forecasts, the total losses can reach from 2.4 to 12.8 million persons by 2010.
What all this means is that Russia is experiencing a serious demographic crisis. With respect to the level of mortality and its trends, Russia is in a very poor position compared to all the Western industrial countries.
The growth, or at least the stabilization, of the size of the Russian population during the first dec-ades of the 21st century will be possible only on the condition that net migration be positive for Russia and of significant proportion. But taking into consideration economic and political reali-ties, it is unlikely that this condition will be realized. It is more probable that the size of the Rus-sian population will decline.
In the present paper, on the basis of the theory of production principles and production revolutions, we reveal the interrelation between K-waves and major technological breakthroughs in history and make forecasts about features of the sixth Kondratieff wave in the light of the Cybernetic Revolution that, from our point of view, started in the 1950s. We assume that the sixth K-wave in the 2030s and 2040s will merge with the final phase of the Cybernetic Revolution (which we call a phase of self-regulating systems). This period will be characterized by the breakthrough in medical technologies which will be capable to combine many other technologies into a single complex of MBNRIC-technologies (med-bio-nano-robo-info-cognitive technologies). The article offers some forecasts concerning the development of these technologies.
A joint research project carried out by an interdisciplinary group of Russian and Swedish linguists, sociologists and educators-psychologists (the Swedish Institute grant), besides solving pragmatic tasks of finding out relative quantitative-qualitative specificity of national cognitive representations of values, first of all, had methodological goals. They were to check the efficiency of the linguistic methods developed in this study (and, thus, to prove the theoretical ideas that served the basis for it) of getting factual data that allow reconstructing and comparing of the corresponding areas of cognitive representations.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.