Демографическая безопасность России и ее регионов: проблемы и пути их решения
The relevance of the article is determined by the critical situation in the population’s mortality rate and health standards as well as by the state of things in the birth rate, marriage and family sphere in the context of threats that the demographic processes instability can bring to the Russian economy as a whole. The article discusses approaches to the concept of «demographic security», analyzes crisis phenomena in the demographic and migration processes and in the human reproduction sphere that threaten the economic growth of Russian regions. The centerpiece of the article is devoted to problems of the contemporary Russia related to alcoholism, drug addiction and smoking. The authors focus on current issues of the family policy and preservation of the family institution in Russia highlighting the problems associated with the spread of informal marriage, the growing number of abandoned children and challenges of adoption and child custody. The authors investigated in detail the issues of the birth rate increase, particularly in the aftermath of the social stratification of Russian society, and pay special attention to the issues of the male working population health maintenance in modern Russia, as well as to gender disproportions in the demographic structure of the population and education. The measures of the demographic and family policy proposed in the article to remedy the situation established in modern Russia can be used by federal and regional government authorities.
The article is devoted to combination’s possibilities of the family and professional employment in the Russia of today. The article is based on the information of comprehensive survey of the living conditions of the population which was made in Russia in 2011. On the base of statistic methods of analyses, particularly construction of tree targets, preferences of Russians were revealed in timing both of professional employment and education of children. Parents can be classify on 6 groups by the time which they devote to their children, first of all it depends on sex, the amount of persons in the family, location of the family, joint or separate from children. Employment strategy differs in range of conditions and time schedule. Parents devote their time to children depending on professional employment. There is not enough flexible labor market in Russia and entrepreneurial activity is low in the small family business. Solution of demographic problems, security of birthrate and effective parenting is impossible without family policy in the direction of reconciling family and professional roles.
The article deals with comparative analysis of family policies towards fatherhood. The author analyzes how family policy in different countries is a mens friendly. Contemporary family policies in different Western European countries include a specific set of support, addressed to father after the child birth. A leave to care for the child is an example which shows that the family policy creates different models of fatherhood. In conclusion the author argues that gender-based analysis of family policy, along with the study of the position of women with children should include fathers who have certain rights and responsibilities.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.