О системе интеллектуальных операций
The importance of intellectual operations within the ability and intelligence structure is discussed in the article. The notion of ‘intellectual operations’ is overviewed by comparison of its meaning in works of different researchers. The author proposes the ability understanding on three levels: the level of individual, the activity subject level and the level of personality. It is reasoned that the intellectual operations and morality are the key factors that ‘transfer’ the ability development from one level to another. Consequently, it is stated that the psychic functions development is at the same time as a process of intelligence integration. The systematization of intellectual operations is suggested.
The systems genetic approach has been used for studying students` mental development. The ability development is considered in terms of intellectual operations acquistion. An aim of the study is to identify the components of the abilities which are consciously acquired by student in the learning process. The study desing is included the work to teach students the intellectual operations and use them at work with training materials, and the psychological testing of control and experimental student groups before and after training test to diagnose the level of intellectual development. The study was conducted with the teachers and students of primary and secondary school.
The present study aims to identify the relationship between intellectual abilities and the motives of occupational choice. Results of the study suggest what motives of occupational choice related to the level of certain intellectual abilities. So, for example, the negative connection between the level of mathematical abilities and the “career”, “confidence” and “authority” motives were found. The level of the “formallogic” ability is negatively related to the “joining”, “confidence” and “public benefit” motives. Most of the identified interrelations are negative. In particular, it was shown that respondents with the lower levels of intellectual abilities assessed the importance of majority motives much higher than respondents with the higher levels of various abilities in our sample. A new method intended to identify different motives of occupational choice was developed during this work. According to its results the factor structure of occupational choice motives has been obtained.
Eighteen papers, from an international, interdisciplinary workshop on measuring empowerment organized by the World Bank's Poverty Reduction and Economic Management network in 2003, address the challenge of evaluating empowerment and its contribution to development effectiveness. Papers focus on a framework for evaluating how empowerment influences the development process and for analyzing the causal forces on empowerment, with cases from Latin America; women's empowerment as a variable in international development; measuring women's empowerment; an analysis of household and family dynamics; psychological empowerment and subjective well-being; an investigation of the relationship between income mobility and perceptions of subjective well-being related to that mobility, using panel data from Peru and Russia; self-rated power and welfare in Russia; applying Q methodology to empowerment; analytical issues in measuring empowerment at the community and local levels; peace, conflict, and empowerment; measuring empowerment at the community level; mixing qualitative and econometric methods; assessing empowerment at the national level in Eastern Europe and Central Asia; the CIVICUS Civil Society Index; empowerment as a positive-sum game; democracy, good governance, and empowerment; and measuring democratic governance. Contributors include economists, anthropologists, sociologists, psychologists, demographers, and political scientists. Narayan is Senior Adviser in the Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Network of the World Bank. Index.
Programmer's professional activity requires an amount of work with different artificial languages. Many studies report that effective programming is correlated with the high level of verbal intelligence. In this paper we study the dynamics of artificial language learning among programmers in comparison with psychologists and the group of non-professional users. We show that programmers learn artificial language in a different way, then the other groups, and this difference is based on their professional requirements.
This article discusses current approaches to the study of morality as a predictor of individual behavior. Integration of personological and socio- psychological approaches opens new perspectives for considering the relationship between moral judgment and moral action. «Self» is considered as a «point of intersection». «Moral Self» is the center of attention in a number of personological as well as socio — psychological research directions. The total consideration of three factors — cognitive aspects of the morality (representations, values, judgments), the components of Self (moral self-esteem and the place of morality in the structure of Self) and situational infl uences (threat / support of the moral Self) — allows to predict individual behavior.
2011 International Conference on Economics and Business Information (ICEBI 2011) is the premier forum for the presentation of new advances and research results in the fields of theoretical, experimental, and applied Economics and Business Information. Topics of interest for submission include Business Information Systems, Business Performance Management, Management Information Systems, and others.
Twenty-four papers examine the state of early childhood development among sub-Saharan Africa's children. Papers discuss the state of young children in sub-Saharan Africa; positioning early childhood development (ECD) nationally--trends in selected African countries; early childhood care and education in sub-Saharan Africa--what it would take to meet the Millennium Development Goals; brain development and ECD--a case for investment; new threats to ECD--children affected by HIV/AIDS; ECD in Africa--a historical perspective; (mis)understanding ECD in Africa--the force of local and global motives; fathering--the role of men in raising children in Africa--holding up the other half of the sky; ECD policy--a comparative analysis in Ghana, Mauritius, and Namibia; participatory ECD policy planning in Francophone West Africa; responding to the challenge of meeting the needs of children under three in Africa; introducing preprimary classes in Africa--opportunities and challenges; inclusive education--a Mauritian response to the "inherent rights of the child"; parenting challenges for the changing African family; ECD and HIV/AIDS--the newest programming and policy challenge; supporting young children in conflict and postconflict situations--child protection and psychosocial well-being in Angola; strategic communication in early childhood development programs--the case of Uganda; the synergy of nutrition and ECD interventions in sub-Saharan Africa; the impact of ECD programs on maternal employment and older children's school attendance in Kenya; the Madrasa ECD program--making a difference; linking policy discourse to everyday life in Kenya--impacts of neoliberal policies on early education and childrearing; community-based approaches that work in Eastern and Southern Africa; whether early childhood programs can be financially sustainable in Africa; and a tri-part approach to promoting ECD capacity in Africa--ECD seminars, international conferences, and the Early Childhood Development Virtual University. Garcia is Lead Human Development Economist in the World Bank's Human Development Department, Africa Region. Pence is Director of the Early Childhood Development Virtual University and Professor in the School of Child and Youth Care, Faculty of Human and Social Development, at the University of Victoria. Evans is Director Emeritus for the Consultative Group on Early Childhood Care and Development. Index.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.