Basking in the glory of schools: school characteristics and the self-concept of students in mathematics
This article addresses the questions, What do children in urban areas do on Saturdays? What type of organizational resources do they have access to? Does this vary by social class? Using diary data on children’s activities on Saturdays in the Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale metropolitan area, the authors describe the different types of venues (households, businesses, public space, associations, charities, congregations, and government/tribal agencies) that served different types of children. They find that the likelihood of using a charity or business rather than a government or tribal provider increased with family income. Also, the likelihood of using a congregation or a government facility rather than business, charity, or household increased with being Hispanic. The authors discuss implications for the urban division of labor on Saturdays and offer research questions that need further investigation.
Since three decades, scholars focus on generalized interpersonal trust as the key component of social capital and there is wide consensus that trust in strangers is the prime indicator of how general people’s trust in others is. However, little work with a specific focus on trust in strangers has been conducted in a comparative, multilevel framework. The few existing studies are inconclusive because of deficiencies in both conceptualization and test strategy. Filling this gap, this article examines the determinants of trust in strangers on the broadest country base ever used in the study of trust, drawing on global cross-cultural evidence from the fifth and sixth rounds of the World Values Surveys--the first international surveys to include a direct question on trust in strangers. Reaching beyond conventional wisdom about the sources of generalized trust, we demonstrate that human empowerment at the country level is a forceful moderator of well-known individual-level determinants of trust. Specifically, in countries with lagging human empowerment, institutional trust, trust in known people and material satisfaction are the only individual-level characteristics that enhance trust in strangers. We also detect an unexpected negative effect of education where human empowerment is lagging. In sharp contrast, in countries with advanced human empowerment, a much broader set of individual-level characteristics increases trust in strangers. This set includes ethnic tolerance, membership in voluntary associations, social movement activity, emancipative values, subjective well-being, age and education. These insights inform a multilevel theory of trust, showing that human empowerment operates as a contextual activator of individual trust promoters.
As a matter of great importance the information and communication technologies (ICT) development are searched in this paper. Indicators using for measuring and fostering progress in this area are widely used in ranking countries last decade. But the development of the country’s regions needs attention as well; especially it concerns such a large country as Russia. The heterogeneity of its regional structure is shown. As an classification criterion the innovative development is proposed. Using advanced statistical parametrical and non-parametrical methods allows defining the stratification of regions. The level of ICT development in groups (strata) of regions has been compared.
This book provides an in-depth comparative analysis of inequality and the stratification of the digital sphere.
Grounded in classical sociological theories of inequality, as well as empirical evidence, this book defines ‘the digital divide’ as the unequal access and utility of internet communications technologies and explores how it has the potential to replicate existing social inequalities, as well as create new forms of stratification. The Digital Divide examines how various demographic and socio-economic factors including income, education, age and gender, as well as infrastructure, products and services affect how the internet is used and accessed. Comprised of six parts, the first section examines theories of the digital divide, and then looks in turn at:Highly developed nations and regions (including the USA, the EU and Japan); Emerging large powers (Brazil, China, India, Russia); Eastern European countries (Estonia, Romania, Serbia); Arab and Middle Eastern nations (Egypt, Iran, Israel); Under-studied areas (East and Central Asia, Latin America, and sub-Saharan Africa).
Providing an interwoven analysis of the international inequalities in internet usage and access, this important work offers a comprehensive approach to studying the digital divide around the globe. It is an important resource for academic and students in sociology, social policy, communication studies, media studies and all those interested in the questions and issues around social inequality.
“Locals” and “alien” in Russian provincial town
The article is based on empirical social research of the local communities in Russia. Their centers are situated in provincial towns, but the territory occupied by the local community, is located in the wider boundaries in the limes of former county and modern administrative district. We have studied only one component of the provincial social structure: the differentiation in categorical opposition "locals" and "aliens" (or “insiders – outsiders”).
The basic concept is the introduction and determination of necessary and sufficient criteria for the recognition of an individual or group as "us", or “insiders”. These criteria are: (1) duration of communal life, or cohabitation, (2) co-residence – the neighborhood, (3) the relationship and the interaction between "insiders", “locals”, (4) reciprocal altruism – the reciprocity relations, (5) the local privileges and their control, (6) regulatory identification with "we" - communal local mentality.
Not all criteria are symmetrical and the oppositional for the categories of "locals" and "alien". The category of "alien" characterized by following significant criteria: (1) the duration of cohabitation and (2) neighborhood. However, in modern terms is irrelevant criterion (3) relationship. On the contrary, the criterion (4) reciprocal altruism is more important for the differentiation of "aliens" than "locals" Criteria (5) the local privilege and (6) the regulatory identification with "we" no longer significant segregation signs for "aliens"; the reason is a widespread system of public benefits and the availability of mass-media. Local privileges and community mentality shifted to the periphery of public consciousness as a criteria of “we”.
The materials are obtained from the field sociological researches of provincial communities during 1992-2012 years. There are also materials of two all-Russian surveys in 1999 and 2009, used for the statistical analysis. Special emphasis on the study of the social structure of the provincial society was implemented as a result of my research project "Social Structure of Provincial Russian Society" supported in 2011-2012 by the Fund "Khamovniki."
The material was collected in more than 50 towns (local populations). They are located in the European part of Russia and in the Urals and Siberia. The selection of the local communities I have undertaken on the basis of four criteria: (1) a small population of the local community, which involves a broad network of acquaintances, the absence of anomie and anonymity, (2) the duration of the local social life, which means society has long been a "natural" way, and many people are related one another. Society forcibly collected from heterogeneous and alien elements, and (3) the town is not a transportation hub, so there is no high level of migration, (4) in the town absence of urban development enterprise, which employs large numbers of people and such a venture "contracts" for all the life-support local society and distorts the social structure.
Field research methodology was required qualitative methods mainly. There have been direct observational method and expert interviews. Analytical materials obtained as a result of sample representative questionnaires residents.
Results. The significant empirical features of “locals” and “aliens” in the urban provincial society were presented. A number of “locals” traits is analyzed statistically, especially the duration of habitation and resident status (temporal and spatial parameters). Sociological analytical procedures can select only the outward signs of division between "insiders" and "outsiders." The share of "indigenous friends" in a provincial town, at least nine out of ten, on the basis of statistical calculations on materials of mass surveys in 1999 and 2009. This result is consistent with my direct observation and experience with fellow researchers, and an assessment of the respondents. It is clear that not all of these people are recognized for their local community and will be full "friends", or “locals”. But in terms of "neighborhood" they are all neighbors. They are familiar with each other. This acquaintance is pretty close. In a provincial town, almost all the residents - relatives and neighbors. They do not have the passion to migration and prefer to spend all his life in his hometown. "Aliens", or “outsiders” has no more than 5% - 10%, but our other observations are much smaller. Most of the " outsiders" is a "flow-through people", the current flow through the town in its motion in space of the country, has not yet stopped. "Outsiders" live in the city no longer 5-7 years, and then they leave.
The profound differences in the degree of closeness of people in local communities are helped by phenomenological approach. I gave a presentation of case studies of social differentiation in the axis of "insiders – outsiders, alien" in the examples of three long-established provincial societies. Differentiation between “locals" and "alien" is caused mainly by the local social and socio-economic history, including nowadays history. The differentiation caused by ethnic, historical or demographic (migration) factors. A variety of factors are important for the evolution of "locals". This group is a heterogeneous population, and always well differentiated and distanced itself from "aliens".
A few examples show the formation and consolidation processes of "locals": (1) at one time as a homogeneous group of kinship and neighbor with further prolonged stabilization, (2) serial (for 2-3 generations) inclusion and incorporation of new groups of "locals" in the local society, (3) selective inclusion of particular groups of "aliens" in the existing closed local society, and the rejection of other groups. "Locals" in the provincial society is homogeneous group in population-demographic and social traits. The local population has a low level of migration, and the boundaries population extends far beyond the city limits, usually covering most of the population of modern municipal region, or the administrative district.
Provincial Russian town is made in the vast majority of "friendly people. People are very familiar with each other inhabitants, a lot of them are relatives, and they give mutually support each other, and have common attitudes. Outsiders is not existing in a small provincial town, that's true. Aliens forms small and compact groups, that are clearly visible and segregate. This status of aliens reflects the homogenously and low difference of “locals”. But, it is the main factor of local solidarity. In such society is not loneliness. Such society has the real local self-government, but it is not receptive to civil society established by state. The society of “locals” is not a civil society.
Adult mortality has been lower in Kyrgyzstan vs. Russia among males since at least 1981 and among females since 1999. Also, Kyrgyzstan’s mortality fluctuations have had smaller amplitude. This has occurred in spite of worse macro-economic outcomes in Kyrgyzstan. To understand these surprising patterns, we analyzed cause-specific mortality in Kyrgyzstan vs. Russia for the period 1981-2010, using unpublished official data. We find that, as in Russia, fluctuations in Kyrgyzstan have been primarily due to changes in external causes and circulatory causes, and alcohol appears to play an important role. However, in contrast with Russia, mortality from these causes in Kyrgyzstan has been lower and has increased by a smaller amount. As a result, the mortality gap between the two countries is overwhelmingly attributable to external and cardio-vascular causes, and more generally, to causes that have been shown to be strongly related to alcohol consumption. These cause-specific results, together with the existence of large ethnic differentials in mortality in Kyrgyzstan, highlight the importance of cultural and religious differences, and their impact on patterns of alcohol consumption, in explaining the mortality gap between the two countries. These findings show that explanatory frameworks relying solely on macro-economic factors are not sufficient for understanding differences in mortality levels and trends among former Soviet republics.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.