The paper considers morphology, morphosyntax and semantics of causative formation in Agul, a Lezgic language of Southern Daghestan (Russia). In Agul, the two most frequent causative patterns, periphrastic and compound causatives, apparently share one source of grammaticalization. The former are combinations of ‘do’ with the infinitive of the lexical verb, while the latter put them together as two bound stems. However, semantically 'do'-compounds belong with non-productive causatives (labile verbs and lexical causatives) and are opposed to fully productive periphrastic causatives. All non-productive causatives – only available for intransitive verbs – have parallel periphrastic ‘do’-causatives, the distinction between the parallel forms conveys the semantic contrast of direct vs. indirect causation. The paper makes an attempt at decomposing these typological categories into simpler components (intentionality, physical interaction, event structure), and provides a detailed semantic analysis of labile verbs and semantically irregular causatives. Periphrastic causatives are peculiar in their own way: they may introduce locative or ergative Causee, the choice depending on the degree of the Causee's control over the caused situation. Basing on this morphosyntactic variability, we argue that periphrastic causatives are intermediate between bi- and monoclausal constructions.
VERB INFLECTION IN THE DIALECT OF GAMMALSVENSKBY A. E. Mankov
The dialect of Gammalsvenskby is the only surviving Scandinavian dialect in the territory of the former Soviet Union. Due to the complete absence of studies into the present-day state of the dialect, the most urgent task is to collect, classify and publish the factual material. The paper introduces material on verbs in the present-day dialect. The classification of inflectional types is offered together with lists of almost all verbs which have been recorded so far (ca. 600). The principal phonetic phenomena which have determined characteristic features of verb inflection in the dialect are examined as well. The sources of the research are interviews with speakers of the dialect recorded by the author during fieldwork in the village.
The volume presents several papers on Mehweb, a one-village language spoken in the central part of Daghestan, a republic of the Russian Federation.
The book describes the Dargwa variety spoken in the village of Tanti (Central Daghestan) and consists of a grammatical sketch and a few chapters devoted to specific aspects of grammar. The variety discussed in the vook shows complex systems of nominal and verbal inflection as well as a number of other non-trivial features. The book includes detailed discussion of the structure of the nominal phrase, the clause structure, agreement and various other phenomena and also a small corpus of glossed texts as well as lexical information.
This study deals with the locative systems of seventeen northern dialects of the Dargwa language (the Dargwa group of the Northeast Caucasian language family). In the first part of the paper I discuss the relations between spatial and non-spatial uses of the localization morphemes. Here I prove that locatives are not equal in their ability to be used in non-spatial contexts and most of such uses concentrate around two morphemes: *cːi INTER and *ki SUPER, while other morphemes either develop a very limited set of non-locative uses or do not develop them at all. The second point of this part is that the semantic source of the non- spatial uses of the locatives is their spatial meaning at the moment of their grammaticalization and not their synchronic spatial meaning. In the second part of the paper I apply statistical methods to the distribution of the non- locative contexts among the morphemes of localization and orientation. Here I show that even though the non-spatial semantics of inter and super are not always connected to their locative semantics, the choice between the two localization is not random and the contexts form two clear clusters. In this section, I also analyze the non-locative uses of orientations and show that the vagueness of the difference between lative and essive that exists in spatial contexts is reflected in non-spatial contexts as well.
We discuss the data from Adyghe (Northwest Caucasian), Udi and Tanti Dargwa (Northeast Caucasian) related to the presence and absence of constraints on relativization from syntactic islands.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.