Общетеоретические подходы к анализу социального развития и социальных изменений
The article is devoted to the development of a fundamental semiotic model of images that is based on the categorical apparatus of Ch. S. Peirce (on the concepts of Firstness, icon, hypoicon and metaphor). The image is proposed to be defined as a complex sign (two-level hypoicon-metaphor), which has a certain “primary” sign as its sign vehicle that represents the object constituted by all the facts (cases of semiosis) that are similar to that primary sign. Three key functions of the image are defined: a) the memory function (the accumulation of semiotic experience inherent in a certain discourse), b) the transfer function (transmission (synchronic and diachronic) of semiotic experience from one discourse to another), c) logonomic function (prescription and enabling of the future of acts of semiosis, similar to a certain exemplary act). The author explores the relationship between the category of image and a number of similar concepts. In particular, the definitions of the category of symbol (by S. S. Averintsev and Yu. M. Lotman), the category of myth (in the interpretation of R. Barthes) and the concept of meme (by R. Dawkins) are analysed and juxtaposed with the notion of image.
In this article, the authors try to redefine G. Tarde's and E. Durkheim's contribution to social theory. Drawing on comparative analysis of the theories of social change, the differences between E. Durkheim's and G. Tarde's sociological projects are shown. These differences cannot be reduced to the opposition between psychologism and sociologism or sociological nominalism and realism. They are considered as a result of essentially different understanding of the nature of social fact. The authors make an assumption that G. Tarde's sociology of associations project, which is underestimated in Russian sociology, is an alternative to E. Durkheim's sociology.