Toward refining the theory of basic human values
Contents foreword Research on values Chapter 1: Introduction and explanation of the term 'values' Chapter 2: The theory of human values according to Shalom H. Schwartz and its relevance for the study of the development of values in childhood and adolescence Chapter 3: Values and Behaviors The research of value development Chapter 4: How to research values in childhood? A question of diagnostics Chapter 5: How do values evolve? Research designs and results from selected subject areas Chapter 6: Values in the family - conveying values through parenting goals and values Chapter 7: Values development and change of values in children - wishes for research Educational approaches to value formation Chapter 8: Storytelling - Goals and content of a school value building project Chapter 9: Experiencing values - an example of conveying values through experiential project work in the fields of theater and outdoor
Personal values are reliable cross-situational predictors of attitudes and behavior. Since the resurgence in research on values following the introduction of Schwartz’s theory of basic values, efforts were focused on identifying universal patterns in value-attitude relations. While some evidence for such universal patterns exists more recent studies point out, there is still considerable variation in value-attitude and value-behavior links across cultures and contexts. Extending the existing literature on potential moderators in this paper we introduce the concept of value-instantiating beliefs. This study looks at subjective construal of the value relevance of specific behaviors as a proximal moderator of value-attitude and value-behavior relations. We argue that a belief that construes a behavior as a valid instantiation of a value is a prerequisite for the relationship between said value and the behavior. We also argue that such value-instantiating beliefs play a central role in determining the direction of the relationship.
In a web-based survey experiment (N = 1724) consisting of three trials, we presented participants with vignettes describing behavioral choices. In order to manipulate the value-instantiating beliefs, the behaviors were described either neutrally, as reinforcing the value, or as inhibiting the value. We then measured the value instantiating beliefs, the attitude towards the behavior, and the intention to perform it. Instantiating beliefs strongly moderated the relationship between the personal values and the dependent variables in all three trials. Moreover, the direction of the relationship was determined by the instantiating beliefs.
The results emphasize the plasticity of the value-behavior relation and the role of social construction in directing the motivational power of values towards concrete instantiating behaviors.
Human values, or more precisely values, values and changes of values, have get more and more attention of psychological and sociological research in the past 30 years. Based on entries in the most important literature database of psychology (PSYCINFO), there were on average of 27 scientific publications from 1890 to 1950, which bore the word "value" in the title. Between 1951 and 1980 there were 160 and between 1981 and 2010 the number was 456. Although the emergence of the word "value" in the title of a social science publication does not automatically stand for an engagement with values, value preferences and change of values. And even so it has to be taken into account that the total number of psychological publications has risen sharply since 1890, yet the numbers illustrate an increasing interest of social and behavioral sciences in human values. Searching on Google supports this impression. If you enter "children's values", a Google search results in over 80,000 hits and even the German-language input "Werthaltungen von Kindern" yields more than 600 hits. The current chapter will first provide a cursory overview of the state of social and behavioral science in value research and then turn to the state of this research in relation to children. Above all, the chapter will ask questions and formulate research ideas: What are the fundamental topics of value research related to children and their development? At what age can one say that children have values? Is it changing what children find 'good' in the course of their development? The chapter should not be misunderstood as a review article. A detailed bibliographic relinquishment of the identified research trends is expressly waived. For the most part, the chapter is primarily intended as a collection of ideas.
We examined the applicability of the hybrid model of creativity, which specifies distinct domains that all express an underlying general creativity factor, in data from representative samples from Central Russia and the North Caucasus (N = 2,046). Using multigroup confirmatory analysis, Study 1 supported the invariance of a model with the six unifactorial domains (i.e., crafts, visual arts, performance, theater, products for work, and machine graphics) at the first level and a general creativity factor at the second level. Study 2 examined socio-demographic characteristics and 19 basic values that might be associated with creative activity. The more modern Central Russian region scored higher on global creativity and on all 6 domains. Of the 4 higher order values in the Schwartz model, Openness to Change values correlated positively and Conservation values correlated negatively with global creativity and with creativity in most domains. Variation across domains in the specific values that predicted creativity revealed that creativity in each domain had some unique motivators. We draw on culture and social structure to explain differences between regions in the value motivators of creativity
The article presents results from a cross-cultural study of the interrelation between the activity of Internet use and individual values of the highest order (S. Schwartz): “Self-Transcendence” — “Self-Enhancement” and “Openness to change” — “Conservation”. The data of the eighth wave of the European Social Research (ESS) was an empirical base of the study. In a comparative perspective, we analyzed the links between Internet use and values in Russia (N=2430), as well as in the three European countries that hold the highest rating in the field of information and communication technologies (ICT Development Index, 2017): Iceland (N=880), Switzerland (N=1519), and UK (N=1926). The data were processed using structural equation modeling (SEM) as well as multigroup structural equation modeling (MGSEM). The study showed that similar between Russia and European countries is the lack of connection between the activity of using the Internet with the values of “Self- Transcendence “, as well as a positive relationship with the values of “Openness to change”. Also, was found the following differences in patterns of relationships: on the sample of Russians value “ Self-Enhancement “ was associated positively with the activity of using the Internet, and on a sample of Western European countries this link is missing, but there is a negative relationship value, “Conservation”, away from the Russians. Based on the data obtained, we supposed how the values of Russians may change in the process of further digitalization of society and increasing involvement in the use of the Internet.