In Chapter discusses the origins of oral history and the formation of oral history as a scientific direction. In addition to the Genesis of oral history in Western Europe and the USA, understand the basic stages and directions of development of the oral tradition in the USSR and modern Russia. It shows the specificity of oral sources, including rumors. Understanding the features of collecting and interpreting verbal materials.
The case of a Sufi shrine of the Dagestani origin in Turkey examined in the article relates to the history of shared transnational Sufi networks. The naqshbandiyya-halidiya brotherhood of the Ottoman origin once moved from the Middle East to Russia’s borderlands in the Eastern Caucasus and then came back to the Ottoman Empire from the North Caucasus. Dagestani Sufi networks and holy places represent a specific kind of interactions between the Muslim elites in the Middle East, the North Caucasus, the Volga-Ural region, and Anatolia from the late nineteenth century up today. The biographies of Muhammad and Sharaf ad-Din from Kikuni buried in Turkey are well documented in various written sources, epigraphs, and oral histories. They participated in the 1877 Uprising, were exiled in the Volga region, and then immigrated to the Ottoman Empire. Their biographies show that the Naqshbandiya-Khalidiyya often crossed political boundaries and ideological barriers established in the region during the demarcation of the possessions of the Ottoman Turkey and the Russian Empire. The exchange of territories and subjects between Turkey and Russia over the past one and a half centuries led to the emergence of hybrid identities. The article traces a micro-history of an identity in a muhajir (immigrant) village community in Western Anatolia. Contrary to popular belief, the Sufi brotherhood never represented a single elusive player in the “Big Game” between the Great Powers. Rather, it included numerous rival factions whose leaders formed complex relations with each other and with local political elites. Sufi ritual networks were and still are closely connected to more local networks of sacred sites (ziyarats) in the regions.
The article is devoted to such ambiguous phenomenon as gossip. It is considered as a kind of people’s version of history, as a kind of informal communication, as creator of world picture and as specific genre of speech. According to the author, gossip quite conform to postfolklor. For example, as in the case of «ingenuous» literature, interest for gossip is not due to its artistic qualities but to circumstances of appearance. As other forms of postfolklor rumors can come far out of causing sphere. Besides, the Internet is not only an effective channel of gossip, but also gives new characteristics to communication - anonymity multiplied by anonymity. Using rumors as commercial advertising, which received the name of «viral marketing» is an indication of postfolklor. In addition, gossip with the informational component, mechanism of public opinion, sentiments and psychological influence produces another « measure» - postfolklor. This allows to expand the using of «auditorial culture» as a source for historical reconstruction of processes (especially latent).
The monograph is devoted to the oral history of the events of World War II. Eyewitness survivors of the dramatic events - from the Finnish Occupation of Soviet Karelia to the experienc of Ukrainian and Russian Ostarbaiters who worked in German labor camps, children in concentration camps, - represent the other side of the war, voiced not only by those who fought at the front, but also lived and worked at this difficult time.
The article focuses on the limits of using oral history methods in the research of academic communities. The authors analyze the language and ways of self-description used by modern Russian academic community. The study is based on the interviews of Post-Soviet university professors, which helps to clarify what is the concept of tradition for them, what is the origin of their individual memories, and how these memories correspond to the collective perceptions of the ideal university.
Based on extensive collection of interviews with Soviet, mostly - Ukrainian, - Jews born before the World War II, the essay examines the problem of religious observance and attitudes to it before and after the war concentrating on the circumcision, the first rite of passage, primal in Judaism and exceedingly dangerous during the Holocaust.