XXVIII Ежегодная богословская конференция ПСТГУ
In the text, the author proposes to consider Western esotericism at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries as a complex phenomenon, largely based on the deconstructed Christian theology and the discoveries of a new science of religion. This idea is illustrated by two examples — the teachings of R. genon and A. Crawley.
This contribution to a volume on the“ultimate why-question” discusses ambiguities in Leibniz’s formulation of the question, “[. . . ] pourquoi il y a plus tôt quelque chose que rien”. This formulation poses two problems: Leibniz does not explain how to understand the concepts of “something” and “nothing”. And it is not clear, whether “something” and “nothing” are contradictory opposites, so that there is either nothing or something, or whether both concepts denote principles which are effective in the world at the same time. My analysis rests on the hypothesis that the relevant context for Leibniz’s question is the theology of creation.
Hence, the paper compares eight different approaches to “creation from nothing” (Thomists, Scotists, Taurellus, Lubinus, Timpler, Keckermann, Kircher, Knorr von Rosenroth, van Helmont). Candidates for the nihil the world was created from include absolute non-being, thoughts in God’s mind, unformed matter, imaginary space, or a self-contraction of the Divine spirit. These different approaches can be translated into different versions of the “ultimate why-question”. The paper concludes that Leibniz’s formulation contains a comparison between two Divine acts of creation, because not only “something”, but “nothing” as well owes its subsistence to the Divine will. This rises substantial questions: either God created first an imperfect entity in order to create the world as a whole, or Leibniz subscribes to an emanative understanding of creation that either levels the difference between creation and (natural) generation or is based on misunderstanding God as a material entity.
This article deals with the first Russian translation of major prosimetric opera and prosaic exegetical texts originated from the so-called “school of Chartres”. A special attention is paid to the place of this edition in Russian and Western historiography of the 12th century philosophy and Medieval Latin exegesis. It has been shown that the way of selecting the texts for the translation and the method of commenting them carried out by the editors of the anthology make it possible to withdraw the Chartres school from the “no man’s land” between the history of ideas and traditional history of philosophy, restoring its appropriate status in the history of the European intellectual culture – at the intersection of theology, Platonic natural philosophy and poetry.
It is shown that the Arab Spring acted as a trigger for a global wave of socio-political destabilization, which significantly exceeded the scale of the Arab Spring itself and affected absolutely all the World System zones. However, this global destabilization wave manifested itself in different World System zones in different ways and not entirely simultaneously.
The growth of the total number of anti-government demonstrations and riots in Sub-Saharan Africa in 2011-2015 was not particularly strong in comparison with most other macrozones, but, by the measures of this macrozone itself, this growth was very noticeable (by several times) and Africa made its own historical records in 2014. If the West, Asia and Latin America made the main contribution in 2014-2015 to historically record levels of the global number of demonstrations, riots and general strikes and the share of Sub-Saharan Africa here
was relatively low, then to the reaching of historically record levels in 2014 by the global number of guerrilla warfare actions Sub-Saharan Africa made a very significant contribution.
Two main discourses of participation used by Origenes— natural participation (N) and individual participation (I) — are identified in this article. N refers to participation of the beings of the created world in the divinity according to their natural capacities, or to participation of the beings of the material world in the principles and logoi of the intellectual world according to the natural qualities of the beings. This type of participation is employed when Origenes addresses the relationship between the Persons of the Holy Trinity, or the connection of the humans with God. Having analyzed these discourses in Origenes, the author identifies four subtypes in N and two subtypes in I. First subtype of N indicates the order in the participation of species of the created beings in the Persons of the Holy Trinity. According to the second subtype of N, all created beings naturally participate in the logoi contained in the Logos-Wisdom. The third subtype is associated with the natural capacity of all intellectual beings to participate in the divine substance (the union with God). According to the fourth subtype, all humans naturally participate in the capacity of reasoning which constitutes the human nature.
Within a brief historical period, BRICS as an inter-State association has become an influential player in the world economy and politics. BRICS is a primarily political entity, and in that regard, the BRICS grouping correlates with the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO). However, not all the expectations placed on the SCO by the founding countries at the time of its creation in 2001 have been met so far. The question is to what extent expectations may be fulfilled in case of BRICS.