Радиационные изменения параметров биполярных транзисторов
The main content of the training manual is:
- consideration of the issues of the effect of radiation creating structural defects on the main parameters of bipolar transistors,
- Consider issues related to the influence of ionization factors on the operation of transistors (radiation transients),
- the effect of nuclear reactions and fast annealing on the parameters of transistors is considered;
- Classification of radiation effects in bipolar transistors is given.
The main content of the training manual is:consideration of issues of interaction of the main types of radiation with a solid, structures of specific point and group radiation defects in silicon, germanium and gallium arsenide are considered, Theoretical prerequisites for the calculation of the change in the basic electro-physical parameters of semiconductors are considered; a summary of the currently available empirical dependences of the main parameters of semiconductors on the integral irradiation flux by various types of radiation exposure is given.
The effects of proton irradiation on SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) are investigated using Synopsys/ISE TCAD tool. To account for the impact of proton irradiation models for carrier lifetime degradation under irradiation are included in the program. The results of modeling the impact of protons of different energies are presented. For SiGe HBT increase in the base current for low-energy protons is more intense than for high-energy protons. We also present the simulation results of SiGe HBT dc and ac performance after proton exposure. The simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data.
Electronic equipment of spacecraft is exposed to ionizing radiation of outer space, which is another reason for failure. Currently accepted to evaluate separately the reliability of electronic equipment and its radiation resistance, despite the fact that these phenomena are interrelated. The aim of the article is to estimate effects of ionizing radiation on the reliability of microwave devices, namely, the probability of failure-free operation of a microwave amplifier.
The probability of device failure model Q(t) for active lifetime is constructed as a product of the probabilities of failure Q1(t) - the probability of device failure due to set the total ionizing dose, Q2(t) - probability of failure of the device in the absence of exposure to ionizing radiation, Q3(t) - the probability of a single effect event. Probabilities Q2(t) and Q3(t) are valued at current normative documents. Probability Q1(t) is calculated based on probabilistic and physical models.
Research shows that, despite the high radiation resistance of microwave devices used in electronic equipment of spacecraft, when the long lifetime is required the low intensity radiation will have a tangible impact on the probability of failure. And that should be considered when designing equipment.
Hardware-software subsystem designed for MOSFETs characteristic measurement and SPICE model parameter extraction taking into account radiation effects is presented. Parts of the system are described. The macromodel approach is used to account for radiation effects in MOSFET modeling. Particularities of the account for radiation effects in MOSFETs within the measurement and model parameter extraction procedures are emphasized. Application of the subsystem is illustrated on the example of radiation hardened 0.25 μm SOI MOSFET test structures.
Experiments revealed higher surface radiation resistance of the sweating aluminium-lithium alloys under long-term ion bombardment, so that it can be recommended for use in stressed sections of thermonuclear synthesis equipment.
A method of account for radiation effects (total dose and particle fluence) in signal integrity analysis of digital system by using IBIS model is presented. It is shown that account for these effects in IBIS models can be performed by correction the input impedances of protection circuits (GND_Clamp and POWER_Clamp), output MOSFETs (PULL_UP, PULL_DOWN) characteristics and RAMP parameters in according with the known physical relations. Examples of digital IC output and crosstalk signals simulation with HyperLynx software using the created IBIS model is presented.
An EKV-RAD macromodel for SOI/SOS MOSFET with account for radiation effects is developed using a subcircuit approach. As an addition to the standard version of the EKV model 1) radiation dependencies of parameters VTO, GAMMA, KP, E0 are introduced and 2) additional circuit elements to account for floating-body effects and radiation-induced leakage currents under static and dynamic radiation influence are connected. Maximum simulation error is 5–7% in the dose range up to 1 Mrad. It is shown that EKV-RAD spends less CPU time by 15–30% for analog and 40–50% for digital SOI/SOS CMOS circuits simulations compared to BSIMSOI-RAD model.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.