Индоевропейское языкознание и классическая филология – XIX. Материалы чтений, посвященных памяти профессора Иосифа Моисеевича Тронского
Proceedings of the International Conference, St. Perersburg, 22–24 June, 2015
The paper examines the notions 'animate' and 'inanimate' which are often used in Latin textbooks in order to explain prepositional or nonpreposotional use of the ablative case of the nouns in the function of 'Ablativus auctoris' or 'Ablativus instrumenti/causae/rei efficientis' with passive verbs. I conclude that the 'animacy' of nouns in Latin is less regularly expressed by grammatical means and less stable than in Russian and should be considered a semantic category rather than a formal grammatical category.
Longus’ novel “Daphnis and Chloe” contains an episode based on a myth unique to the extant classical literature although well known in other cultures - the myth of a wild man who is unfamiliar with the mystery of sex and marriage and who gets acculturated under a woman’s guidance. Lycaenion instructs innocent Daphnis initiating him into the mysteries of Eros. The scene of Daphnis’ erotic initiation is compared to the earliest written record of this myth, i.e., the meeting of Enkidu, who lives among animals and does not know how to speak, with the temple prostitute Shamhat; other examples from world mythology are also presented. This myth, forced out of the Classical Greek literature, was claimed by Longus in the sophistic context about the relations between nature and art, village and city, peasants and noblemen Mundane on the surface, the story about a shepherd and a shepherdess is grounded on a fundamental for the mankind’s culture myth, presumably forced out of the Classical Greek literature. By means of literary structure and imagery the author not only demonstrates the distance between nature and human culture but shows an apparent sympathy toward the first member of this opposition, something which the ancient myth does not have and cannot have. Thereby it creates the mediation between the opposites characteristic for the myth whereas on the basis of a secondary myth appears a literary archetype of a pastoral
The article deals with the “most famous word in the Septuagint” (J. Barr) – παρθένος translating Hebrew עַלְמָה in Isaiah 7:14. The author concurs with those who suggest that the semantic difference between the two words was greatly exaggerated in the two thousand years dispute between Jews and Christians. A model of lexical analysis based on the Prototype theory (Eleanor Rosch and others) is suggested to be more appropriate for studying semantic relationship between an original text and its translation than the traditional one. It is claimed that the prototypical meanings of the words παρθένος and עַלְמָה, as far as we can judge from our corpora, almost coincide. Using the Greek Pentateuch as a kind of “Hebrew-Greek dictionary” the translator of Isaiah had to choose between two possible translations for the Hebrew עַלְמָה: παρθένος and νεᾶνις. The factors that might affect his choice are investigated. Probably, the word νεᾶνις was rejected because of its associations with the concept ‘servant’. The choice of παρθένος may have influenced the rendering of the Hebrew tenses by the Greek in Isaiah 7:14.