Очерки модернизации российской промышленности: поведение фирм
The chapter offers three analytical cases put together as a result of non-formalized face-to-face interviews. it is shown how different manufacturing enterprises - mature chemical firm within the vertically intergated holding, new machine-building plant which serve the demand of resource sector and the relatively new company with the foreign owner - undertake technological innovations. The barriers, motivations and risks which influence the decisions to innovate are descrived. In the end, we show how innovations affect the competitiveness.
This chaper refers to the problem of low productivity and weak competitive stand of plants located in small and particulalry small specialized towns as compared to firms in bigger and more diversified locations. The findingds imply that the urban size and density of economic space, as well as its excessive sectoral specialization significantly reduce the firm competitiveness. Yet, the sectoral structure matters: textile and garmet plants in small towms are most vulnerable. Minimal diversification of economic structure and sufficient scale economy at the plant level allow to reduce the negative effects of the urban size.
The chapter privdes insight into the specificity of innovations at the mature manufacturing firms in Russia. The findings show that the group of genuine innovators, which target at least the national market and undertake R&D is rather small and unstable. About 10% of large enterprises completed the technological upgrade and get ready for the innovative mode of economic growth. We did not observe the technological convergence. Instead the group of leaders close to technological frontire becomes stronger, while the outsiders fell further behind. Firms which innovate regularly take decisions on product and process innovations simultaniously, and we did not find any evidence that these decisions compete. Innovations are more likely to increase competitiveness when they are integrated into the investment process.
The chapter focuses on the alternative measures of the relative competitiveness of Russian manufacturing enterprises and on assessing the changes in the distribution of manufacturing firms by those measures between 2005 and 2009.