Как люди переезжают в разных странах: мировой опыт изучения пожизненной миграции
The article is devoted to the study of international research experience of migration, especially internal migration. The total number of countries studies the migration of population by censuses using the question of the place of birth. Thus, in 2005 censuses rounds from 141 countries, conducted a census at that time, 115 of which asked this question. Using the criterion of lifetime migration allows evaluating the internal migration. In the absence of other data sources, the application of this criterion can be used for international comparisons of internal migration. In many countries there are features of the usage of this criterion, which express as either a fractional difference in administrative-territorial division, or in combination with other methods of research. Besides asking about the place of birth it is also asked about the previous place of residence and place of residence at some point in the past. Censuses are supplemented by special surveys, such as American Community Survey in the United States and the National Sample Survey in India. By the case of India, Venezuela and the United States the author identified the distinctive features of internal migration in individual countries from different parts of the world and with different levels of socio-economic development. In India the question about the previous place of residence has the same popularity, apart from the question of the place of birth. Both criteria give a similar pattern of migration, despite the differences in the definition of migration. Until now, the most large-scale migrations are displacement of rural population. In Venezuela, as in many other Latin American countries, there is a lack of demographic statistics. Under these conditions, the census is the most important source of information about the inter-regional migration. A special government program was approved in this country to overcome the imbalance of territorial redistribution of the population in the 1960s. In the U.S., the population of which is known for its mobility, there is a strong differentiation among the states in migration activity.