Роль ценностей в процессе демократического транзита
The main focus of this paper is the relation between the realisation of the right of the child to express his/her views and democracy in Russia. With this in view, I will study the interconnection between the right to express the views and the right to participate. Further, I will give an overview of the specifics of democracy in Russia, how they influence political participation, and what could be done to prevent the further infantilisation of citizens in Russia. Finally, I will explore traditional perceptions with regard to children’s participation in Russia and the legal framework and practice of the implementation of the child’s right to social and political participation.
In September 2009 Russia’s Dmitrii Medvedev unveiled the term that was to become the defining objective of his presidency: “modernization”. Leaving office in the spring of 2012 it was apparent that no serious changes of this kind had taken place, and popular resistance was mounting. Why so? And why has resistance to reform been so significant in postcommunist Russia, not just in this but in other cases as well? The various contributors to this book, drawn from a group of intellectuals who have shaped the discussion in Russia itself as well as leading scholars from other countries, focus on the contested nature of the concept of modernization and the obstacles that arose in attempting to carry it into practical effect – obstacles that leave a challenging agenda for a new Russian presidency in the years to come.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.