Эффект называемости и его значение для категориального научения
In this review, a new and important nameability effect — the effect of the ease of naming parts of objects on categorical learning — is discussed: new categories are more easily learned when the related objects consist of easy-toname parts. Although the effect has only recently been described, studies have revealed its importance not only for understanding the nature of category learning, but also for research on the mechanisms of categorization, memory, and cognitive development in general. The origins of the nameability effect, methods of measuring it, and limitations in its manifestation related to task type and category type were also reviewed. Part of the review contains a description of the study of age-specific regularities of the nameability effect and the specifics of its use in adult-guided learning. The nameability effect is compared to the memorability of the stimulus. It is assumed that the nameability can correlate not only with memorability, but alsocausally determine the degree of ease of memorizing stimuli. It is emphasized that higher memorability can be an important factor in categorical learning. It seems important in the future to study the contribution of verbalization processes to the effect of memorability and categorical learning at the same time. The main conclusion of the review is that the nameability effect is an important factor in the success of categorical learning in adults and children from a certain age. This effect needs to be taken into account both in explaining the regularities of learning and in designing the material, for example, by assessing it for the level of nameability.